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What is Mineralogy ?

by Pratiksha

Mineralogy is the study of minerals. It deals with understanding their origin, physicochemical properties, magnetic and optical properties. This is achieved by studying the minerals in hand specimens. 

Firstly a mineral is a naturally occurring solid, homogeneous in nature, crystalline chemical element or compound usually formed by organic processes.

Mineralogy of endogenic origin are formed by chemogenic, organic and mechanical processes is lastly.

Minerals having the same chemical composition but a different atomic arrangement gives the crystal totally different properties. Such minerals are called polymorphs.

Properties of Mineralogy

The physical properties of minerals can be determined readily by simple tests because the physical properties are determined in hand specimens. They are important in the recognition of minerals in the field is lastly.

1. Colour of mineralogy

Colour of minerals is due to absorption of a certain wavelength of light by atoms making up the crystal. Firstly the remaining wavelength of  white light that are not absorbed gives rise to the colour seen by the observer

Presence of a small amount of impurities can give a variety of colour to a white or colourless is lastly.

2. Streak

Firstly the colour of mineral powder is called streak. It is consistent and reliable than the body colour of the mineral. Transparent minerals show colourless white and rarely coloured streaks is lastly.

3. Form/Habit

Minerals often occur in characteristic body form as physical shapes.

  1. Fistly T=tabular: Mineral occurs in flattened elongate form.
  2. Bladed: The mineral appears as if composed of the flat, blade like structure
  3. Radiating: The mineral is made up of needle-like shape, which appear originating from the common point.
  4. Crystallised: Well defined crystal with perfect cleavage indicative of perfect atomic arrangement

4. Hardness of minerology:

Firstly hardness is one of the most useful diagnostic properties of a mineral. It is defined as the resistance of a mineral to abrasion or scratching.

5. Cleavage of minerology

If a mineral breaks along a flat surface, it is said to possess a cleavage and if it breaks with an irregular surface, it is said to show a fracture is lastly.

6. Fracture of minerology

Firstly minerals which do not exhibit cleavage, break with an irregular surface. The nature of this broken surface is called fracture is lastly.

Types of mineralogy:

  1. Rock forming minerals
  2. Ore forming minerals
  3. Primary and secondary minerals
  4. Felsic and mafic minerals
  5. Essential and accessory minerals

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