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free energy refers to the amount of internal energy in a thermodynamic system that is available to do work. There are different forms of thermodynamic free energy

Petroleum Refining is defined as the industrial process of production of useful petroleum products from crude oil. The crude oil in its raw form is a dark and sticky liquid which is not useful. To get the usable products from the crude oil, it needs to be refined.

These are those polymers which decompose under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, as a result of the action of microorganism/enzymes.

Crystal field theory established in 1929 explains the interaction of the metal ion and the ligand as a pure electrostatic reaction

Polyvinyl chloride is produced from the main component. It is white, brittle solid material available in powder form or granules.

Chirality is an important property of asymmetry in many branches of science. A chiral molecule or ion exists in two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other, called enantiomers

Optical activity is the ability of a chiral molecule to rotate the plane of plane-polarised light.some organic compounds cause the rotation of polarized light

Elastomers are polymers showing properties of both viscosity and elasticity and are also called viscoelasticity. The molecules of elastomers held together by weak intermolecular forces

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Fluorescence spectrometry is a fast, simple and inexpensive method to determine the concentration of an analyte in solution based on its fluorescent properties.

Buffers are generally characterised by pH range by which they maintain a more or less constant pH by their buffer capacity.

Petroleum Refining is defined as the industrial process of production of useful petroleum products from crude oil. The crude oil in its raw form is a dark and sticky liquid which is not useful. To get the usable products from the crude oil, it needs to be refined.

Li-ion batteries are able to be recharged hundreds of times and are more stable

Calorific value is the amount of heat energy present in food or fuel and which is determined by the complete combustion of specified quantity at constant pressure and in normal conditions.

water that contains a required quantity of dissolved minerals (like calcium and magnesium) ,Water hardness is usually measured as calcium hardness in milligrams per litre (mg/l)

Calcination is a very simple chemical process, where the solid material or the substance is heated in a controlled environment, in the process the temperature is also regulated

The Molecular orbital theory was utilised initially to emphasize the bonding in molecules as the valence band theory could not explain the bonding in molecules.

Enantiomers are a pair of molecules that exist in two forms that are mirror images of one another but cannot be superimposed one upon the other