Earth dam- The dams which are constructed of earthen materials such as gravel, sand, silt and clay are called earthen dams. It has trapezoidal section with a top width 3 to 10 m and upstream slope of 1 V : (2.5 to 4)H downstream slopes of 1V:(2 to 3)H
- The main types of earthen dam
- Homogeneous type of embankment dam
- Diaphragm type earthen dam
- Zoned type embankment dam
- Types of dam based on method of construction:
- Rolled fill dam
- Hydraulic fill earth dam
- Semi hydraulic earth dam
- The main advantages of such a type of dam is that it can be constructed on any type of foundation strata which contains soil, gravel, earth murum, rock etc.
- Such dams are suitable and favorable for the sites with very wide to steep valleys.
- Earth dams can be constructed with the use of locally available natural material and hence cost of transport becomes less.
- The design of such a dam is flexible such that different types of materials can be used for its construction.
- There is a continuous process of construction with a highly mechanized system.
- An earth dam requires a supplementary structure for the spillway.
- There are more chances of susceptible leakage and erosion of the foundation.
- Dam structure can be subjected to damage because of burrowing animals.
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