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The group of high energy particles, which move closely to the speed of light is the …

The entropy of a substance is a real quantity, just like pressure, volume and temperature. Its unit is joule/Kelvin (J/K).

A crystal is a solid whose constituent atoms, ions or molecules are closely packed in a regular fashion with repeating pattern in three dimensions.

Nanotechnology is dealing with the characterization, design, production and various applications of nanostructures and nanosystems.

Nanotechnology have considered as the solution to our smallest to biggest problems. Applications of Nanotechnology are countless.

Ampere’s circuital law is one of the general laws of magnetism. This law used to find the magnetic field due to current distribution.

Thermodynamics is the branch of physics which deals with heat and other forms of energy and also gives relationships between them.

Drude and Lorentz gave classical free electron theory of metals theory in 1900. Another name for this is Drude –Lorentz theory of metals.

Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle states that: If the x-component of the momentum of a particle is measured with an uncertainty ∆px, then its x-position cannot, at the same time, be measured more accurately than ∆x = ℏ/(2∆px).

Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) is when the restoring force is directly proportional to the displacement of the body from its mean position.

The materials which exhibit this property of superconductivity are known as Superconductors.

The number of atoms present in the excited state is greater than the number of atoms in the ground state is called population inversion.

Lorentz transformation gives the relationship between two different coordinate frames moving at a constant velocity w.r.t. to each other.

Rate of Stimulated emission depends upon the number of atoms present in the excited state as well as the energy density of photons.

Faraday’s law gives the idea about how an electromotive force comes into action when a magnetic field interacts with an electric circuit.

Bravais lattice gives information of the periodic array in which the repeated units of the crystal are arranged.

Walter Meissner and Robert Ochsenfeld discovered a magnetic phenomenon in 1933. He studied and give the Meissner effect.