Elastomers are polymers showing properties of both viscosity and elasticity and are also call viscoelasticity. The molecules hold on together by weak intermolecular forces, generally exhibit low Young’s modulus and high yield strength or high failure strain.
In addition they possess the specific property, where it regains its original size and shape even after being stretchable to a large extent.
Examples of Elastomers and their applications:
Natural rubber: Rubber is useful in the automotive industry and also in the manufacture of balloons, adhesives and medical.
Polyurethanes: elastic clothes called lycra, are manufacturers using polyurethanes in the textile industry.
Polybutadiene: Therefore resistance properties in the wheels of vehicles are got by these polymers.
Silicone: Silicones show good resistance chemically and thermally, hence are useful in lubricants and also in medical prostheses.
Neoprene: These are useful in the making of industrial belts and wet-suits.
Properties of Elastomers
Temperature: The specific working temperature of them vary depending on the factors like design of the seal, compatibility of media ad the static and dynamic operation.
Low-temperature flexibility: Low temperature are useful to study the recovery rate of the elastomeric material.
Hardness: the measurement of hardness reveals the resistance of the material to the deforming force, which means by the length of time.It may vary from material to material, the after compounds easily deform showing high friction, whereas the harder ones show high resistance and low friction.
Ageing: However when materials expose to heat, the behavior of the material is reveals itself, the material undergoes hardening, cracking and splitting is they move above their ageing resistance.
Colour: Colouring is mainly useful to derive the difference between grades that are based on the way it is used.
Elongation at break: in other words, When materials are under tensile stress, the moment of rupture is tested by them.
Types of Elastomers
Saturated Elastomers: They are less reactive and show good stability against heat,ozone, radiation and oxygen. However their reactivity is limited to certain circumstances and conditions. Polyacrylic rubber and silicone rubber are examples of saturated elastomers.
Unsaturated Elastomers: They can be cured with the Sulphur vulcanization process. Butyl rubber and natural polyisoprene are examples of unsaturated elastomers.
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