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What is Petrol refining?

by Joy_Chemistry

Refining Of Petrol

Petrol Refining is defined as the industrial process of production of useful petroleum products from crude oil. The crude oil in its raw form is a dark and sticky liquid which is not useful.

To get the usable products from the crude oil, it needs to be refined.Petrol is a liquid that occurs naturally in rock formations. It consists of a complex mixture of different molecular weights of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds. Some petroleum-derivation of chemicals are also derives from other fossil fuels.

Petroleum refineries are very large industrial complexes that include a large number of processing units and ancillary equipment such as utility units and storage tanks.

This refinery has its own specific arrangement and combination of refining processes, largely dictated by the refinery location, target products and economic considerations.


Petrol is a mixture of many substances such as gas, gasoline, diesel, kerosene, lubricating oil, paraffin etc. Since these components serve different purposes, it is important to separate them, i.e. to refine crude oil. This process of separating different oil components refers to as oil refining.

This happens in oil refineries.It’s a three step process.

The first step is separation, in which crude oil is separated into different components by means of a distillation process. Heavier components stay on the ground, while lighter components rise as vapor or remain liquid.

These still quite heavy components are then converts into gas, petrol and diesel. The next step is conversion.

These have certain impurities, and  the final step is the treatment in which their treatment in order to obtain pure forms of various products.

The old and most common way of separating things into different components ( fractions) is to use differences in boiling temperatures. This process is fractional distillation. Basically, crude oil heats, sprayed, and then steam undergoes condensation. .

Distillation of Crude Oil

In the industry, the refining process is commonly refer to as “downstream”, while the “upstream” refer to as petroleum production.

The word downstream is synonymous with the idea of ​​transporting oil through a raw material supply chain to an oil refinery in order to refine it into gasoline.

The downstream stage also includes the actual sale of petroleum products to other companies, governments, or individuals. Petroleum is a liquid which occurs naturally in rock formations.

This consists of a complex mixture of different molecular weights of hydrocarbons, plus other organic compounds. Some petroleum-produced chemical compounds are also obtains itself from other fossil fuels


Crude Oil Distillation

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