The process of production of food with the help of sunlight, water and air by the plants is the photosynthesis. It is also as the conversion of light energy into chemical energy with the help of cellular respiration.
The food stored in the plants will be in the form of starch or sugar. The term ‘photosynthesis’ is derived from the Greek word, where Phos means light and synthesis means putting together.
Figure image: Equation of Photosynthesis
It is the major process of maintaining the oxygen content in the atmosphere, which is the basic necessity for some living organisms in the Earth.
The process of photosynthesis happens with the help of green pigment called chlorophyll.
Chlorophyll of photosynthesis
These are the green pigments, which present in the chloroplasts of algae and plants and also in the bacteria variety of cyanobacteria. It majorly absorbs light. These molecules are packed in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts.
Process of Photosynthesis
The organisms which use photosynthesis for their preparation of food are photoautotrophs. Through the process of carbon fixation, the carbon dioxide is absorbed and then converted into sugars.
The captured sunlight converts carbon dioxide into glucose with the help of water from the soil, which roots are absorbing directly from the soil with the help of root hairs. The first process use light, so it is light dependent reaction and the latter part is light independent reaction. All above reaction will take part in the leaves of the plant.
Then, this sugar (Glucose) is transferring back to all the other parts of the plant to further convert into more complex carbohydrates such as starch and cellulose. This forms the basic structure of all the cells in plants.
The main by-product of this process is oxygen, which forms the major factor for life on Earth.
Types of photosynthetic pigments
The photosynthetic pigment is classified into four major types, which are as follows
- Chlorophyll a
- Chlorophyll b
Factors affecting the process of photosynthesis
There are various factors, which affects the process or rate of photosynthesis. Some of them are Intensity of light, water, pH level of soil, concentration of carbon dioxide, temperature of the surroundings, and some climate conditions.