Biodegradable polymers are formed in a process where the polymer material is converted into harmless simple gaseous products by the action of enzymes present in microorganism and water.
These are those polymers which decay or crumble under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, in other words the action of microorganism/enzymes. However the materials forms products like starch, cellulose, and polyesters. Aliphatic polyesters are the most commonly used polymers in this type.
In addition ,a polymer which can be converted to harmless gaseous products by action of biological enzyme and water, is called biodegradable polymers.
Therefore ,3 components are important in the biodegradation of organic polymers.
A) The Organisms: – for instance, pseudomonas, bacillus, protozoa, acetobacter, various fungi, etc.
B) Our Environment: – above all suitable temperature , moist condition, presence of salts, suitable ph.
C) In addition Nature of polymer: –
1. Therefore Polymer chains should contain bonds which can undergo hydrolyses or oxidized by the enzyme action o, s.
2. In addition, they are highly aromatic they are tough for degradation
3. Similarly, Hydrophilic end groups, and Hydrophilic chain backbone of the polymer contains O, N,3. atoms that easily degrade.
4. Therefore More amorphous is the nature of polymer that is require
5. In conclusion, the small size of polymer material
Example: – PHBV
In other words, It is a co – polymer of hydroxy butyric acid and 3 hydroxy valeric acid. It is produceable by fermentation of glucose by alcaligenes eutrophus species.
Structure of Biodegradable polymers
- Nylon 2–nylon 6:- In other words, It is a polyamide copolymerisation of glycine (H2N−CH2−COOH) and aminocaproic acid (H2N−(CH2)5−COOH).
- Polyhydroxy butyrate (PHB):- It is formed by the reduction of the hydroxybutyric acid (3-hydroxy butanoic acid) molecules
· Soluble in chloroform and are highly crystalline. The polymer has melting point 180° c,
it is a thermo softening compounds, in addition soft, and flexible.
· Therefore such polymers are very costly
Not useful to manufacture on a large scale
Don’t have high mechanical strength
·compounds are therefore useful for moulding articles and other purposes.
· Polymers are useful for films for packaging and lamination
· Biodegradable polymers are applicable in the medical field – for organ transplants, surgical, and orthopaedic operations.· In addition useful in the agriculture field – for preparing fertilizers and pesticides.
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