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What is Perfect Competition?

by Team Goseeko

Perfect competition refers to ‘A market structure in which there are a large number of buyers and sellers with a single uniform price for the product which is determined by the forces of demand & supply.’ The price prevailing in a perfect competition market is equilibrium price.


It is identified by the existence of the many firms; they all sell identical products in an equivalent way. The supplier is the one who accepts the price.”- Vilas

Such market gains when the request for product of every producer is totally elastic. Mrs Joan Robinson.

It is a market condition with an outsized number of sellers and buyers, similar products, free entry of enterprises into the industry is ideal knowledge between buyers and sellers of existing market conditions and free mobility of production factors between alternative uses. Lim Chong-ya

Characteristic of perfect competition:-

1) Large number of seller / seller are price takers: There are many potential sellers selling their commodity in the market. Their number is so large that a single seller cannot influence the market price because each seller sells a small fraction of total market supply. The price of the product is determined on the basis of market demand and market supply of the commodity which is accepted by the firms, this seller is a price taker and not a price maker.

2)  Large number of buyers: There are many buyers in the market. A single buyer cannot influence the price of the commodity because individual demand is a small fraction of total market demand.

3) Homogeneous product: The product sold in the market is homogeneous, i.e. identical in quality and size. There is no difference between the products. The products are perfect substitutes for each other.

4) Free entry and exit: There is freedom for new firms or sellers to enter into the market or industry. There are no legal, economic or any type of restrictions. Similarly, the seller is free to leave the market depending on industry.

5) Perfect knowledge: The seller and buyers have perfect knowledge about the market such as price, demand and supply. This will prevent the buyer from paying a higher price than the market price. Similarly, sellers cannot change a different price than the prevailing market price.

6) Perfect mobility of factors of production: Factors of production are freely mobile from one firm to another or from one place to another. This ensures freedom of entry and exit firms. This also ensures that the factors cost are the same for all firms.

7) No transport cost: It is assumed that there are no transport costs. As a result, there is no possibility of changing a higher price on the behalf of transport costs.

8) Non intervention by the government: It is assumed that the government does not interfere in the working of the market economy. Price is determined freely according to demand and supply conditions of the market.

9) Single Price: In Perfect Competition all units of a commodity have uniforms or a single price. It is determined by the forces of demand and supply.

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