In Chemistry, orbital hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals, into new hybrid orbitals. (with different energies, shapes, etc., other component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory.
The concept of hybridization was additionally introduced as it was the best explanation for the fact that all the C – H bonds in molecules like methane are identical.
Therefore, Hybridization is a process where the atomic orbitals that have different shape and energy
The orbitals inter mingle together to form a set of the same number of orbitals.
These orbitals for instance have the same shape and energy. and possibly the atomic orbitals mix to form new atomic orbitals.
In other words, new orbitals formed have same total electron capacity as the old ones.
Similarly,property and energy of the newly formed, hybridized orbitals are an ‘average’ of the original orbitals that are unhybridized orbitals.
Formula for hybridization:
Here, v = number of valence electrons,
m = monovalent.
c = positive charge. a = negative charge.
Therefore, the purpose of hybridization are types of bonds that atoms share with each other, whether it be sigma or pi bonds.
The different types of bonds allow different properties, for instance how pi bonds do not allow rotation and as sigma bonds are rotational.
Above all, Hybridization allows for the most stable (and most desirable) structure as hybrid orbitals.
however , after that there are enough electrons to complete the necessary bonds, irrespective of whether there is a suitable number of valence electrons.
Therefore, Hybridization is a concept of general chemistry, in addition, it is used in both organic and inorganic ones.
In other words, Its relatively big importance for organic chemistry results in the simple model which can explain (approximately) molecular geometry of organic compounds.
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