In 1970, Winston Royce introduced the Waterfall Model. Needs analysis and specification, unit construction, implementation, and evaluation, integration and system evaluation, and implementation and maintenance are the five phases of this methodology. Moreover, The steps are not uniform and always go in this direction. Before moving on to the next level, the developer must finish all stages. Because its graphic depiction resembles the fall of a waterfall, this model is termed the “Waterfall Model.”
Phases of Waterfall model
1. Requirements analysis and specification phase: The purpose of this phase is to fully appreciate and properly document the customer’s requirements. It specifies the “what” rather than the “how” of the system to be built. During this phase, a huge document known as the Software Requirement Specification (SRS) is created, which contains a full description of what the system will accomplish in layman’s Terms.
2. Design Phase: This phase’s purpose is to translate the SRS requirements into a format that can be programmed in a programming language. It includes high-level and detailed design as well as the overall software architecture. A Software Design Document is use to document all of this effort (SDD).
3. Implementation and unit testing: During this phase, the design is put into action. Because the SDD contains all of the information required by software developers, the implementation or coding phase goes smoothly if the SDD is complete.
4. Integration and System Testing: This phase is critical since the success of the testing determines the quality of the final product. During this phase, however, the modules are tested for their interactions with one another and with the system.
5. Operation and maintenance phase: Every user must perform maintenance after the software has been deliver to the customer, installed, and turned on.
Pros of Waterfall model
- Firstly, All phases are clear defining.
- One of the most systematic methods for software development.
- This is one of the most tried-and-true models.
- It is simple and straightforward to use.
Cons of Waterfall Model
- Real Projects rarely follow sequential models.
- It is frequently difficult for a customer to express all of his or her expectations explicitly.
- For sophisticated and object-oriented tasks, this paradigm is inadequate.
- For long-term projects, this paradigm is inadequate.
- There is a great deal of risk and uncertainty.
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