A cable used to transmit the data through fibres (threads) or plastic (glass) known as an optical fibre cable. Optical fibre includes a pack of glass threads that transmits modulated messages over light waves.
Figure : Optical Fibre
Working of Optical Fibre is based on the principle of “Total Internal Reflection”.
Total Internal Reflection
When a beam of light ray travels from denser medium to rarer medium the refracted ray bends away from the normal. As a result the angle of incidence becomes greater than the critical angle and the refracted ray again reflects into the same medium. This phenomenon called as total internal reflection.
Characteristics of Optical Fibre
- It has a large bandwidth.
- Optical fibre has higher bandwidth such that 2 x 1014 Hz optical frequency of the system can be used.
- Due to the greater bandwidth of the optical fibres, they have excellent information-carrying capacity.
- In an optical fibre system transmission losses are as low as 0.1 db/km.
- It is of small size and lightweight as compared to electrical fibre.
- Optical fibre communication is free from electromagnetic interference.
- Optical fibre does not carry high voltage and current hence they are safer than electrical cable.
- These are flexible and have high tensile strength. Thus can be bent or twisted easily.
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