Before the first 1900s, there was no business theory as we expect of today. The work happened as was common — those with skills did the work the way they thought best (usually the way it had been always done) before Frederick Winslow Taylor’s idea, the notion of having the ability to review work and improve work processes didn’t formally exist.
Scientific management has spawned innovative ideas at the time, like training employees and implementing standardized best practices to enhance productivity. Taylor’s theory was called scientific because it adopted techniques borrowed from botanists and chemists, like analysis, observation, synthesis, rationality, and logic, to develop it. If you read more about Taylor, you would possibly decide by today’s standards that he wasn’t a worker’s “friend.” However, Taylor must be praised for creating the concept of a corporation that operates during a “business” or “business-like way” meaning efficient and productive.
Frederick W. Taylor
Prior to the economic Revolution, most businesses were small businesses, averaging 3-4 people. Owners often worked next to employees, knew what they might do, and meticulously directed their work. Within the us, the economic Revolution has dramatically changed the dynamics of the workplace. Factory owners and managers didn’t have close relationships with employees. Workers “on the floor” managed the work process and made sufficient efforts to avoid being generally dismissed.
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
Two more pioneers within the field of business theory were Frank and Lillian Moller Gilles, who studied at about an equivalent time as Taylor. Like Taylor, Gilbreth was curious about how workers’ productivity, especially movement and movement, affects efficiency.
Henry Gantt (1861–1919) was also Taylor’s companion. He’s probably best known for his two key contributions to classical management theory: the Gantt chart and therefore the task and bonus system.