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What is Infiltration?

by Pratiksha

Infiltration is the process that can be defined as it is an entry and movement of water through the land surface into the substrate.

Process of infiltration

Firstly the rain water gets divided into three different processes. I.e. A part of it evaporated. A part of it that runs along the slope due to gravitational force is called a run off.

Through the tracks, faults and through the voids between the oil particles and therefore the rate at which the water goes down to the sub surface is called the infiltration rate.

In the beginning the rate is high due to easy penetration and dryness of soil but as it goes further down the rate of infiltration gets reduced. Therefore the measurements of the rate of infiltration is mm per hr.

Factors affecting on process

  1. Characteristics of rainfall
  2. Ground surface conditions
  3. Soil characteristics
  4. Soil moisture
  5. Entrapped air
  6. Change in the climatic conditions
  7. Human activities.

1. Characteristics of rainfall

The total rainfall amount and the intensity of rainfall are the major factors which affect the infiltration firstly. On the other hand if the intensity of rainfall is less than the rate of infiltration all the rainwater gets infiltrated and there is no runoff. If a region has a long rainy season the rate of infiltration goes on declining lastly.

2. Ground water conditions

Firstly the land surface on which the rainfall is received can be of various types. If the surface is bare naturally the physical impact of the rainwater will be more . The rate of infil. gets reduced because the velocity of the runoff water goes on increasing.

3. Soil characteristics

It has been observed that the rate of infiltrations varies as the type of surface soil and its characteristics change.  If the soil particles are of uniform shape and size there will be more open space and more pores to increase the rate of infiltration lastly.

4. Soil moisture

Therefore if soil has higher moisture the rate of infiltration at the beginning of the rainfall is reduced, naturally soil having less moisture.

5. Entrapped air

If the soil in the lower section has some pores and has entrapped air lastly. 

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