An algorithm is made up of a finite number of stages, each of which may involve one or more actions. The probability of these operations being performed by a machine demands that certain restrictions be imposed on the type of operations that an algorithm might include.

Basically algorithms are the finite steps to solve problems in computers. It can be the set of instructions that performs a certain task. The collection of unambiguous instructions occurring in some specific sequence and such a procedure should produce output for a given set of input in a finite amount of time is known as Algorithm.

**Characteristics**

In addition, all algorithms must satisfy the following criteria:

**Input**: can be zero or more input**Output**: must produce output**Finiteness**: must have ending**Definiteness**: unambiguous and clear**Effectiveness**: should not be complex

**How to Write an Algorithm?**

Algorithm writing does not have any well-defined standards. Rather, it is a function of the situation and the available resources. Algorithms are never creates in order to support a specific programming language.

As we all know, basic code features such as loops (do, for, while), flow control (if-else), and so on are share across all programming languages. An algorithm can written using these standard constructs.

We usually create algorithms step by step, however this isn’t always the case. After the problem domain has been well-define, algorithm writing is a procedure that is carry out. To put it another way, we should be aware of the problem area for which we are developing a solution.

**Complexity of Algorithm**

It is highly useful to categorize algorithms according to the amount of time or space they require, and to indicate the development of time/space requirements as a function of input size. As a result, we have the concepts of:

1. **Time Complexity**: The program’s execution time as a function of the size of the input.

2. **Space Complexity**: The amount of computer memory required to run a programme as a function of the size of the input.

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