6 222The above table or diagram was set up by utilizing Graicunas recipe. As indicated by V.A. Graicunas, when the quantity of subordinates builds then there is an expansion in the Direct Single Relationships, Direct Group Relationships and Cross Relationships. In this way, as the quantity of subordinates increments mathematically, the quantity of connections among them likewise increments mathematically. Along these lines, as indicated by him, a high level chief can viably oversee just 222 connections. Accordingly, a high level director ought not to have in excess of 6 subordinates. Additionally, a lower-level management ought not to have in excess of 20 subordinates. Advantages of Graicunas Theory The Graicunas Theory is censured in light of the accompanying reasons:- 1.He gives more significance to the mathematical factor. 2. He gives more significance to the connections. Q8) Explain Factors Affecting Span of Control? A8)1. The Ability of Officers: The absolute first and most significant factor in deciding the range of control is the capacity of officials who need to oversee. They are exceptionally proficient and able. They can control an enormous number of subordinates in actuality. In the event that the officials are less effective they would not have the option to control that a lot number of subordinates. 2. Accessibility of time for Supervision: The second factor which decides the range of control is the accessibility of time with the supervisors of higher unit for management. In the event that they possess less energy for oversight, they would not have the option to control an enormous number of subordinates. 3. Nature of work: The range of the board is influenced by the idea of work moreover. In the event that the work is more muddled, Managers can't have successful authority over few representatives as it were. 4. Plans for the Enterprise: If the plans of the endeavor are clear and stable, the administrators feel it simple to control the exercises of their subordinates. On the off chance that the plans of the undertaking are not steady, it turns out to be hard for the supervisors to control the exercises of countless subordinates. 5. Capacity and effectiveness of subordinates: A significant factor influencing the range of the executives is the capacity, productivity, and ability of subordinates. On the off chance that the subordinates are capable and effective and they are happy to arrange with their higher officials, Managers can control an enormous number of subordinates. 6. Procedures of control: The range of control relies on the methods of control too. On the off chance that the procedures of control viable the directors can control countless subordinates. It is the procedure of individual oversight is utilized, the supervisors won't have the option to keep up successful control of the relative multitude of representatives. 7. Level of decentralization: If there is a sufficient decentralization of intensity in the venture, the administrators can control countless subordinates on the grounds that their weight of work will be light. On the off chance that the centralization isn't so much embraced, Managers will have the option to have compelling power over as few subordinates in particular. 8. Administration of Experts: If the administration of specialists is accessible in a venture, the quantity of subordinates heavily influenced by one authority might be more and if the administrations of specialists not accessible in the undertaking. The quantity of subordinates heavily influenced by one official will be Limited. Q9) Explain Centralization vs. Decentralization in Detail?A9) Length of the executives, centralization and decentralization all goes under the heading of power. It is a scope of subordinates who are offered guidelines to report straightforwardly to a specific high level chief. Range of Management is likewise named as Span of Control. According to safety measures, chiefs should neither have not many subordinates nor an excessive number of subordinates. Numerous explores determine that there isn't any completely right range of the board for directors of any kind. Further, the range of the board might be more extensive or smaller relying upon the specific states of the administrative positions. Coming up next is a couple of highlights of the whole cycle of length of the executives. 1. The work of subordinate ought to have a little cooperation with others. 2.Managers and their subordinates are exceptionally talented. 3.Subordinates perform comparative work. 4.Infrequent Problems. 5.Close actual vicinity of subordinates to each other. 6.Managers need to play out a couple of administrative obligations. 7.Managers have further assistance like colleagues or secretaries. 8. To spur the subordinates for performing great job, in light of the fact that the work is testing. Centralization: It is a standard which implies that the intensity of decision making of the association stays leveled out of the high level administration. It is likewise said that all that which diminishes the part of subordinates can be named as centralization since high level administration holds everything. There are three sorts of centralization that are departmental centralization, centralization of execution and centralization of the executives. Advantages of Centralization 1. Centralization is helpful with respect to coordination with various people and units. 2. Probably, the higher administration may be additional expert and encountered that may prompt compelling and proficient decision making. 3. Regarding decision making, the higher administration has an expansive discernment according to different circumstances. 4. It can help evade the duplication of endeavors performed various units over the association. 5. The administration that appears to be solid and productive is advanced. Decentralization: It is a standard under which the force is deputed to the lower level administration. All the more plainly, it tends to be named as the designation of capacity to all degrees of the board over the association. All that improves the function of subordinates is known as decentralization. To take significant choice carefully, the force is held by the top administration. The authoritative structure will be named as brought together if the choice that are made at lower levels should pass the exacting assortment of rules, techniques, and approaches and on the off chance that the choices doesn't give the ideal result, at that point they are alluded to the more significant level administration. While then again, an authoritative structure is known as decentralized if the choices that are made at lower levels and went through severe principles, strategies and arrangements, yet leave some of issues are left for lower-level administration. Further underneath are a couple of preferences of centralization and decentralization which will enable the understudy, to bring up how these terms contrast from one another. Advantages of Decentralization 1. The centralization of top directors remains on the significant issues. 2. The employment obligations of lower-level staff are allowed the chance to improve decision making. 3. The Decision creating cycle can turn out to be all the more quick. 4. The lower-level experts may realize the top to bottom state of the issue, which may bring about better decision making with respect to the situation of the lower-level representatives. 5. Similar free units or offices are converged as a division that permits an advantageous estimation of normal results.
Basis for Comparison
The retention of powers and authority with respect to planning and decisions, with the top management, is known as Centralization.
The dissemination of authority, responsibility and accountability to the various management levels, is known as Decentralization.
Systematic and consistent reservation of authority.
Systematic dispersal of authority.
Open and Free
Proper coordination and Leadership
Sharing of burden and responsibility
Power of decision making
Lies with the top management.
Multiple persons have the power of decision making.
Inadequate control over the organization
Considerable control over the organization
Best suited for
Small sized organization
Large sized organization