Unit - 3

Applications of Partial differentiation

- Find Maclaurin’s Expansion’s for log sec x.

Solution:

Let f(x) = log sec x

By Maclaurin’s Expansion’s,

(1)

By equation (1)

2. Prove that

Solution:

Here f(x) = x cosec x

=

Now we know that

3. Expand upto x6

Solution:

Here

Now we know that

… (1)

… (2)

Adding (1) and (2) we get

4. Show that

Solution:

Here

Thus

5. Expand in power of (x – 3)

Solution:

Let

Here a = 3

Now by Taylor’s series expansion,

… (1)

equation (1) becomes.

6. Using Taylors series method expand

in powers of (x + 2)

Solution:

Here

a = -2

By Taylors series,

… (1)

Since

, , …..

Thus equation (1) becomes

7. Expand in ascending powers of x.

Solution:

Here

i.e.

Here h = -2

By Taylors series,

… (1)

equation (1) becomes,

Thus

8. Decampere a positive number ‘a’ in to three parts, so their product is maximum

Solution:

Let x, y, z be the three parts of ‘a’ then we get.

… (1)

Here we have to maximize the product

i.e.

By Lagrange’s undetermined multiplier, we get,

… (2)

… (3)

… (4)

i.e.

… (2)’

… (3)’

… (4)

And

From (1)

Thus .

Hence their maximum product is .

9. Find the point on plane nearest to the point (1, 1, 1) using Lagrange’s method of multipliers.

Solution:

Let be the point on sphere which is nearest to the point . Then shortest distance.

Let

Under the condition … (1)

By method of Lagrange’s undetermined multipliers we have

… (2)

… (3)

i.e. &

… (4)

From (2) we get

From (3) we get

From (4) we get

Equation (1) becomes

i.e.

y = 2

If where x + y + z = 1.

Prove that the stationary value of u is given by,

10. Expand in powers of x using Taylor’s theorem,

Solution:

Here

i.e.

Here

h = 2

By Taylors series

… (1)

By equation (1)