When trying to find the source of a conflict, it is vital to recollect that the various sorts of conflict reflect where the conflict originates (internally or externally) and therefore the number of individuals involved (personal or group).
The prefix inter- relates to external origination. you'll remember this by the 'e' in 'inter-' and 'external.' The prefix intra- relates to internal origination.
Interpersonal Conflict: Conflict that exists between two people is named interpersonal conflict. The conflict is external to every person (hence the 'inter-' prefix) and exists only between the 2 people. Interpersonal conflict is often seen any time two people disagree on a subject. We see it in people as young as toddlers once they fight over one toy and as old as two home patients once they argue over politics. Because we've different likes and dislikes, enjoy various things, and consider the planet from different perspectives, interpersonal conflicts are sure to happen.
Intrapersonal Conflict: Remembering that the prefix 'intra-' means originating internally, you'll see that intrapersonal conflict is once you feel conflicted about your own thoughts or actions. Maybe you've always told people they ought to help the homeless then, once you see a homeless on the road, you become afraid and switch away. The disconnect between your words and actions may cause internal turmoil. Intrapersonal conflict is usually a psychological battle for the person experiencing it. While intrapersonal conflict is often difficult, its resolution leads to a stronger understanding of yourself.
Intergroup Conflict: It takes place when one group like a department disagrees with another group. This conflict may arise thanks to different viewpoints and conflicting group loyalties. Each group tries to enhance its image and gain power over another group. For example, in an organization, a major cause of intergroup conflicts is competition for scarce resources. Each group feels that they deserve more and need more than what is available to it.
(I) Individual Strategies
(Il) Organisational Strategies
An individual experiencing stressful situation can take the following steps to either minimize or eliminate the side effects of intense stress:
Physical Exercise: A person suffering from stress must resort to physical fitness exercises for this purpose, exercises such as walking, jogging, swimming, etc., can help to combat stress. Regular exercise can also help to reduce certain diseases such as heart problems.
Meditation: An individual suffering from stress may also resort to mediation. Meditation helps to develop the power of concentration. It helps to overcome the problem of neurological problems. It can also reduce physical strain on the mind this is because; the mind has control over the matter- i.e., body.
Relaxation Training: It is a technique that teaches different methods for replacing feeling of tension by relaxing or releasing tension/One of the relaxation techniques involves listening to soft music. People can also relax with the help of meditation and mental exercises.
Time Management: There should be proper time management so as to avoid work overload. Proper time management can reduce the stress caused due to work overload It is true that if one can manage time effectively, he or she can achieve much more than otherwise. To manage time effectively one has to: •Prepare a day wise list of activities.
•Give priority to urgent and important work. •Delegate routine and repetitive work.
•Handle the most demanding work, when one is fresh or more productive.
Social Support: Emotional support from family members, friends, co-workers, supervisors and others is very useful to soften the effects of stress.
Behavioral Self-Control: This strategy involves the individual attempt to control the stressful situation instead of allowing the situation to control him. A person can avoid a situation that will put him under stress.
Biofeedback: In this method, a stress victim, under the medical guidance learns to influence symptoms of stress such as headache or increased blood pressure likewise, psychological treatment can also be provided to reduce stress.
Networking: It means forming close associations with trusted friends or co-workers who are good listeners and confidence builders.
Personal Well Being: Some preventive steps can also be taken to minimize the effects of stressors. These are:
•An appropriate philosophy of life
•Nutrition management, etc.
An employed person may be stressed due to work-related matters. Therefore, an organization must adopt certain strategies to overcome stress of its employees. The strategies are:
• Creating a healthy work environment such as good working condition, good superior, subordinate relations, etc.
• offering sabbaticals (long leave).
• proper welfare facilities such as canteen facilities, recreation facilities, etc.
This theory of Maslow is stated as follows:
(1) Maslow's theory is based on human needs
(2) He classified all human needs in a hierarchical manner from the lower to the higher order
(3) He believed that once a given level of need is satisfied, thereafter it does not serve to motivate a man.
(4) The next higher level of need has to be activated to motivate man.
(5) The needs are as follows:
(a) Physiological Needs:
(i) These relate to the survival and maintenance of human life.
(ii) These are the basic or primary needs. For example, air, water, food, sex, rest, shelter, clothing, etc.
(b) Safety or Security Needs:
(i) After physiological needs are satisfied, these needs become important.
(ii) These needs are the needs or self-preservation and economic independence.
(iii) These are the needs for becoming free from danger, threat and deprivation. People need bodily safety, job security, provision for old age, insurance, etc.
(iv) These needs are very important where management policies are uncertain and arbitrary.
An organization can satisfy these needs through- pension plan, job guarantee, medical scheme, insurance plan, etc.
(c) Social Needs:
(i) Man is a social animal
(ii) Therefore, he wants association, belonging, friendship, love and affection.
(iii) These are the needs of affiliation and affection of one's fellow human beings.
(iv) People form informal groups to seek meaningful association, companionship.
(d) Esteem or Ego Needs:
(i) These are connected or concerned with awareness of self-importance and recognition from others.
(ii) They consist of such things like- self-confidence, self-respect,
independence, power, prestige, achievement, praise and status.
(e) Self-actualization Needs:
(i) This implies "the desire to become more of what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming.
(ii) It involves self-fulfillment or achieving what one considers to be his mission in life.
(iii) It urges an individual to realize his full potential for continued self-development and for
(iv) Being creative in the broadest sense of the word
Physiological, Safety and Social Needs-are lower level needs.
Ego and Self-actualization Needs - are higher order needs. Needs have a definite sequence of priority. They arise in certain order a preference. Safety needs do not dominate until physiological needs a satisfied.
Man is a wanting animal. he always continues to want something or the other.
He is never satisfied - If one need is satisfied, another takes its place.
Once a need is satisfied it ceases to be a motivating factor.
If lower level needs are satisfied, the individual can be motivated only by satisfying his higher level needs. Physiological and security needs an unlimited but other needs are limited.
Maslow says - various need levels are interdependent and overlapping. Each higher level need emerges before the lower level has been completely satisfied.
(i) The needs may or may not follow a definite hierarchical order.
(ii) The need priority model may not apply at all times in all places.
(iii) Researchers say man's behaviour is guided by multiplicity of behaviour Maslow's statement that one need is satisfied at one time may not be correct.
(iv) In case of some person’s level of motivation may always be lower.
Addressers: Addressers are people who take the initiative to address the conflict and try to resolve it. They believe that some sort of compromise is required on both the sides to agree on completing issue. Addressers can be:
• First- steppers, who believed that trust is a vital element to resolve conflicts. They have traits on being understanding, empathizing, sympathetic and affirmative.
• Confronters, who are relatively on a superior position than the opponent and believes that my confrontation, they assert their authority and make the opponent feel vulnerable.
Concealers: Concealers are people who conceal their opinions and feelings and do not take any interest in conflict resolution. There are three types of Concealers:
•Feeling-swallowers swallow their feelings with a smile. They do not complain about the pain and stress caused to them due to conflict. They do not reveal their true feelings.
•Subject-changers are the ones who change the subject of discussion, and discuss those issues which are mutually agreeable. They do not surface the issues which are conflicting or difficult to handle.
•Avoiders are the people who simply avoid the conflict. They believe that the best way to resolve a conflict is to avoid it.
Attackers: Attackers are expressive and try to criticize someone or the other irrespective of the issue of conflict resolution. Attackers may be of two types:
•up-front attackers, who are aggressive and attack the opponent openly.
•Behind-the-back attackers, who are difficult to handle as it may not be known whether the opponent is criticized and if so the reason may not be clear.
When you get a gaggle of individuals together day after day, conflict is inevitable. the workers you so carefully screened during hiring interviews aren't immune, either. they could have had the right answers to behavioral questions like, “How does one handle conflict?” Unfortunately, polished interview responses don’t guarantee a harmonious workplace.
However, the following four conflict resolution strategies are widely used approach:
Avoiding: Physical or mental withdrawal from the conflict.
Smoothing: Accommodating the other party’s interests.
Forcing: Using power tactics to achieve a win.
Confronting: Facing the conflict directly, and working it through a mutually satisfactory resolution.
The above approaches can be grouped into three basic conflicts management strategies:
Win/Lose Strategy: This approach eliminates the conflict by having one individual “win” over the other.
Lose/Lose Strategy: This approach eliminates the conflict by having both individuals “lose” something. Inspite of the negative comments faced by both the individuals, this strategy can eliminate conflicts.
Win/Win Strategy: The basic purpose of the win/win strategy is to solve a problem and not to shift the blame on others.
Workplace conflict can occur during a sort of ways: between two employees, among entire teams or between supervisors and therefore the team members they manage. As difficult because the issue might sound within the moment, resolving team conflict is feasible. My company, Patriot Software, provides tools to assist day-to-day business operations run more smoothly. within the course of that employment, we've learned much about how small businesses, especially, are often suffering from team conflict.
When conflict arises, don’t avoid it or pretend nothing went on . As time goes on, tension will build -- and therefore the conflict only will worsen. affect these uncomfortable issues as soon as possible, before problems and bad feelings become embedded in everyday work. If you notice a conflict between employees, encourage them to seek out how to figure it out. If conflict develops between two teams, it is a blast to enhance interdepartmental communication. If you've got a conflict with one among your employee, address it head on and privately.
2. Talk together.
Set up a time and place so you'll talk for an extended span without outside interruptions. When you do meet, everyone should have adequate time to mention what he or she believes the opposite party must hear. Don't let a person monopolize the conversation or control the subject. everyone should mention the disagreements and the way he or she feels about things. Remember, this is often not the time to attack or assign blame. specialize in the matter, not your opinion of the opposite person’s character.
3. Listen carefully.
It's essential to offer your complete attention to the one that is talking. don't interrupt the opposite person.
Make sure you're getting the message he or she intends to send. Rephrase and repeat back what you've heard to verify understanding. you would possibly say something along the lines of, “Let me confirm I understand. You’re upset about actually because _____.”
Ask clarifying questions if needed. you'll request that the opposite person repeat a central idea or reword his or her frustrations during a way that creates sense to you.
4. Find agreement.
Your conversation primarily will specialize in the disagreements, but resolution is feasible only you discover points of agreement. you ought to emerge from the experience with some positives rather than all negatives.
Shed light on commonalities. Share examples or instances during which you accept as true with the opposite person or can see another point of view. for instance, if you disagree on new sales tactics, you would possibly share what you liked about the opposite person’s idea or the motivation to figure harder for the team. Looking for agreement demonstrates your willingness to hunt out footing and build a relationship around those trust elements.
5. Provide guidance.
If you're during a leadership position, there are times you'll got to mediate work conflict. Don’t take sides, ever. Realize you're there simply to assist your employees compute their problems. You might have got to guide the conversation. And if hurt feelings run high, it's likely you will need to redirect the subject so your employees return to the important problem. If you're during a position to offer advice on next steps, highlight the positive aspects of the method and suggest related topics or actions they will run through after the meeting.
6. Be quick to forgive.
Every conflict needs a transparent resolution that acknowledges hurt feelings and finds an answer that begins to fix them.
Apologize. Tell the opposite person you're truly pitying any ill words or actions -- and mean it. You'll also got to forgive the opposite person. Agreeing solely for the sake of appearances can cause grudges that deepen over time, undoing any progress you've made together.
Foundation course - Manan Prakashan
Organisational Behaviour by Stephen K. Robbins
Culture and Organizational Behaviour by Jay B.P. Sinha