An average GD usually features 10 to fifteen participants. The GD process begins by the announcement of the subject to the group, which is (usually) followed by a
preparation time of three to five minutes. quite 5 minutes’ prep time could also be given as long as the GD may be a case-study discussion, and features a long case statement.
At the top of the prep time, the panel signals the group to commence the discussion, and from then on plays the role of a non-participating observer. this suggests that the discussion isn't moderated or ‘anchored’ by a panelist. The group members must discuss the subject as they deem appropriate with none quite suggestion from the panel. The panel expects no particular order of speakers to be followed nor a minimum or maximum duration of chatting with be followed by individual participants.
The average duration of most GDs is quarter-hour (not including the prep time). In some exceptional cases (such as IIFT), the GD may continue for up to 45 minutes. One must remember that the longer the GD goes on, the more seriously the panel looks at the standard of the content (facts, analysis, explanation and argument) of the participant.
The panel usually consists 3 or 4 panelists, who check out various aspects of the participants’ content and delivery. Please remember that the panelists may end the GD whenever they need to, and also extend the GD for the maximum amount as they need to. Nobody among the participants is meant to stay time for the group or act on the idea that the GD will end after the 15th minute.
The GD ends in either of the 2 ways: first, the panel may abruptly stop the GD and announce the top of the process; second, they'll ask a participant (or quite one participant) to summarise the GD. If you're asked to summarise, do remember what summary means – your summary cannot have anything in it that wasn't discussed during the GD. I especially stress now because the participants who are mostly quiet during the GD are usually asked to summarise it, and that they tend to require this chance to air their views which aren't presented during the discussion. The summary must be an objective recapitulation of the details mentioned during the discussion, and therefore the conclusion of the discussion.
TYPES OF GROUP DISCUSSIONS
Most Group Discussions are often divided into 3 kinds:
A) Topical Group Discussions, which are supported current affairs or ‘static’ matters – for instance, a GD on the subject of the recent demonetisation of Rs 500 and Rs 1000 notes would be the previous, whereas a GD on whether India should adopt a presidential model of democracy would be the latter, because it has no limitation of a time-frame.
B) Case-studies, which present the group with a posh business situation that needs a choice to be made. Such cases usually have multiple problems embedded within the given situation, and both the individual participants and therefore the group are required to analyse things, identify the issues, and suggest how out.
C) Abstract Group Discussions, which are called so because they provide us no definite framework of the subject, and hence no definite direction to require within the discussion. Instead, the participants are required to interpret the subject in their own ways and demonstrate innovative thinking in doing so. Such topics might be single-worded, like ‘Blue’, or a brief cryptic sentence, or maybe a picture.
Contrary to popular perception, nobody quite GD is necessarily easier or harder than the other, because the quality of response in any case depends largely on the preparation of the individual and therefore the way they typically think.
What is the evaluation criteria during a Group Discussion?
The evaluation of participants happens in two broad perspectives: Individual qualities and group skills.
Individual qualities ask the competencies that you simply may demonstrate in or outside the context of a gaggle. They include the following:
A) Content: What you say during the discussion is looked into from two perspectives – relevance and comprehensiveness. it's possible that a participant has talked an excellent deal during a GD, but he or she may have deviated from the subject significantly, during which case the content is deemed largely irrelevant without the likelihood of further evaluation. If the content has been relevant to the subject, the panel examines whether your treatment of the subject is superficial or in-depth, distinction we shall discuss intimately within the next few posts.
B) Analytical skills: The panel is in fact curious about your facts, but they also wish to see whether or not you'll explore the ‘why’ and therefore the ‘how’ of the topic matter. this is often put to the sternest test during a case-study topic.
C) Reasoning skills: The panel looks at how you support your standpoints, and the way you answer those of the others, how effectively you'll ‘strengthen or weaken’ an argument, how logical you're in your overall approach to the subject
D) Organisation skills: you'll have the facts, the supports, the reasons, but are you ready to present them within the right order so on maximise the impact of your good content? The panel wants to look at this.
E) Communication skills: you'll have exhibited all the talents stated above, but are you able to get your point across to someone during a simple (not simplistic) language they understand, with relevant illustrations they will identify with
F) Creativity: Are you ready to bring back the table a completely unique perspective on the topic? are you able to check out a drag differently from ten other participants and suggest a path-breaking solution? are you able to interpret an abstract topic in ways the others cannot? If yes, the panel looks at you as someone with one among the rarest of human qualities.
On the opposite hand, the group skills ask those skills which may only be evaluated within the context of a gaggle. They include the following:
A) Listening skill: The panel constantly observes whether or not every participant is taking note of the discussion. In my experience, most participants are concerned only with speaking, and feel that they're through with the work as soon as they need spoken, which is contrary to the spirit of a discussion. There are some ways a panel may infer that a participant may be a poor listener, like a scarcity of eye contact with the group, or a poor summary at the top. It's one among the rarest skills, and a requirement for a would-be manager.
A) Leadership quality: In highly-charged discussions, one or two participants usually play the role of the anchor, therein they define the subject appropriately, offer the initial analysis of the keywords of the subject, and also attempt to hold the group together in pursuit of a standard goal. Such individuals could demonstrate effective leadership, and score some extra points. However, one cannot score anything extra just because one spoke first within the group, or was the loudest.
B) Body language: While assessing the visual communication, the panel primarily looks at eye contact and hand movements. The speaker must maintain a uniform eye contact with the whole group as he or she speaks, and therefore the listeners must reciprocate. If the either doesn’t happen, you permit the panel to infer whatever they want to – from a scarcity of confidence to a scarcity of interest within the GD to the shortage of concern for others. All very detrimental to the ultimate score. Hand movements are to your speech what punctuation is to your writing. If used wisely they beautifully enhance the effect of your words; if used unwisely they attract unnecessary attention and distract the listener from your words.
I like to recommend that you simply ‘free’ your hands. don't engage them with something pointless like twiddling with the pen, or tapping on the desk, or running through your hair (common among female participants). The body has an intelligence of its own. Just leave your hands alone and specialise in the subject . The hands will start moving naturally. Please remember that visual communication can't be faked. a talented observer will quickly see through such deception. Just specialise in the task at hand and therefore the body will obediently follow. The panel can also concentrate to your voice modulation. an uneventful pitch may reduce the impact of even the foremost powerful words unless you're a Tommy Lee Jones! Vary the pitch of your voice so as to make emphasis wherever needed.
C) Group behaviour: this is often usually assessed during a broad distinction – assertive or aggressive. Avoid the latter regardless of what. Assertiveness may be a rational display of conviction of one’s thoughts, while aggressiveness may be a display of domination through subtle intimidation. Assertiveness allows room for flexibility – which may be a desired trait – while aggressiveness results in irrational rigidity of viewpoint. Please remember that B-schools are trying to find sensitive individuals, not skinhead bouncers.
Now that you simply skills you'll be evaluated, specialise in specific areas of improvement during your practice GDs. Identify with the assistance of your trainer the strengths and weaknesses. Set clear goals for yourselves, and don't lose the sight of them during your practice.
Your interview preparation includes researching the organization and, if possible and without "stalking" them, researching the people, too.
The Internet provides a wealth of data for job seekers. These are 10 (or more) places where you'll start your research.
If you've got time, keep looking. The more you recognize, the higher off you'll be. Not only will you be in knock-their-socks-off mode for the interview, your research could assist you determine that the employer won't be an honest place for you to figure.
1. Very carefully analyze the work description.
It is too easy to skip this step and an often-deadly mistake if you are doing.
Ask them for a replica of the work description, if you do not have already got it. Then read it word-by-word. Pay careful attention to:
How they describe themselves - if they describe themselves.
The "requirements" of the work - experience, skills, education needed to try to the work.
The "duties" of the work - what the person doing the work are going to be liable for.
Any "nice-to-have" needs that are not specified as needed for this job, but are skills or knowledge which will gain you bonus points.
Build Your Interview Checklist: Make an inventory of how you meet their requirements, have proven ability to accomplish the duties, and are an "ideal" candidate for this job.
Don't assume that the work requirements and duties are necessarily so as of importance -- they ought to be, but aren't always within the order that the interviewer would like. So, specialise in your strengths.
2. Prepare samples of your accomplishments.
Saying you're very skilled at something isn't as effective as sharing an accomplishment that proves your skill level. a superb thanks to share your accomplishment is by describing situations where you successfully used that skill. consider this as "success story telling."
Think of the days once you have successfully navigated through a difficult or challenging situation. If possible, specialise in work-related situations or, at least, once you have achieved something associated with what's required for this job. for instance, when you:
- Solved a drag, major or minor.
- Created a replacement process.
- Lead a team (as the team leader or not).
- Managed a situation (as the manager or not).
- Did something else innovative or original.
Preferably, these accomplishments helped your employer increase profitability, reduce expenses, improved customer or employee satisfaction, or provided another major benefit to your employer at the time. Then, build a STAR description of every situation:
S -- situation things -- the circumstances and context.
T -- the Task -- the matter or the target you were trying to realize.
A -- the Action -- what you probably did to accomplish the Task successfully.
R -- the Result -- the successful resolution of things.
For samples of STAR stories, read Be a STAR in Your Next employment interview. the great news is that when you've got prepared your STARs, you'll use them to answer many various questions for other employers, too.
3. Examine the organization's website.
If this employer has no website, move on.
The employer's website presents "the party line" about the organization -- what they tell the planet, and potential customers/clients, about themselves. Study the
house page, but don't stop there.
Read the "About Us" and "Contact Us" sections. Then, shop around at the opposite pages.
- Know the industry or purpose of the organization. make certain that's what you expect and need to be involved in.
- Become conversant in the products or services. Know the brand names, if any, or a minimum of the aim or function.
- Check for press releases or the newest news about the organization.
- Look for names of the senior officers or founders and other highly visible employees.
- Are any of them familiar to you or, perhaps, known to you?
- Where are they located?
- Do they need their jobs posted?
- Does the knowledge on the web site raise any questions or concerns for you? does one see any opportunities.
- Read the way to Leverage the knowledge on Employer Websites for more details on digging out information from the employer's website, LinkedIn and more.
4. Put Google, DuckDuckGo, Bing, and YouTube to figure gathering important information about the organization.
This is where you see how well "the party line" on the web site relates to what the remainder of the planet thinks. Reality about an employer might be quite different than what the web site tells you, counting on the standard of the web site and/or the standard of the organization.
If you've got product or service names, use an enquiry engine (or two) to ascertain what's being written, said, and videoed about the products or services. Dig in past the primary few pages of results.
- Look for product or service reviews.
Look for happy and unhappy customers and therefore the reasons for both. search for the names of competing organizations and competing products or services. Be very careful in your sharing of what you've got found. the neatest thing could also be to use the knowledge as a basis for asking questions (without regard to your research) and observing what's happening once you are there. Also, use these reviews to direct further research.
- Read their annual reports, if available.
If the employer may be a company which sells stock on the stock exchange within the USA, search for the newest financial report on AnnualReports.com. Companies with "publicly traded" stock must publish independently-audited financial reports per annum. Quarterly reports also are required,
but aren't necessarily independently audited.
In annual reports, you'll find details on sales, profits, key executives, locations, and far more for this company. Also, search through AnnualReports.com to seek out the newest reports from this employer's competitors. they're gold mines of data, if they're available.
5. Check the LinkedIn and Facebook Company Profiles.
Hopefully, you already found links to those profiles with the Google search (step 3, above). Click on the links to ascertain what additional information you'll find.
LinkedIn Company search On LinkedIn, the term "company" extends to high school districts, nonprofits, government agencies, and other non-corporate entities. to seek out an employer, type the corporate name within the search bar, and on the results page select "Companies" from the menu you discover once you click on "More."
For many organizations from Fortune 500 to local small nonprofits, LinkedIn will often have information about the people that work there (and how you're "connected" to them inside LinkedIn) also because the organization itself plus job openings.
6. Use Google, YouTube, and LinkedIn to research any names you've got.
You may find that you simply have something in common with someone interviewing you. Perhaps you attended an equivalent college or share a former employer. Check them out, too, on search engines and LinkedIn
Hopefully, you recognize the names of the people that are going to be interviewing you. If they are not offered when the interview is scheduled, invite them. you would like both their names and their job titles. Then, head for LinkedIn to ascertain what you'll discover about each -- how long they have been with the employer, where they've worked within the past, where they visited school.
If they need written and posted articles on LinkedIn or other websites, read a number of those articles. search for a topic (e.g. social media marketing is great or international sales are the longer term of the company) and anything you would possibly have in common with them.
Try to get a way of the type of individuals who work there. Are all of them holders of advanced Ivy League degrees, several veterans of the USMC, mostly twenty-somethings, all one gender, all one race, a mix of ages and races, or anything that catches your eye.
Interview is that the widely used (election method. it's a face-to-face interaction between interviewee and interviewer. If handled carefully, it is often a strong technique in having accurate information of the interviewee otherwise unavailable. At an equivalent time, if the interview isn't handled carefully, it is often a source of bias, restricting or distorting the flow of communication.
Different scholars have defined ‘interview’ differently. consistent with Scott et al., “an interview may be a purposeful exchange of ideas, the answering of questions and communication between two or more persons”. Bingham et al. define an interview as a ‘conversation with a purpose”.
Thus, interview is often defined as an effort to secure maximum amount of data from the candidate concerning his/her suitability for the work into account.
It tries to realize an accurate appraisal of the applicant in terms of his/her educational qualification, training, family background, previous work experience and judge the applicant’s certain qualities like manners, appearance, conversational ability, meet people pleasantly, etc.
Objectives of Interview:
In the selection process, interview serves the subsequent objectives:
- Verifies the knowledge obtained through form and tests.
- Helps obtain additional information from the applicant otherwise not available.
- Gives the candidate necessary facts and knowledge about the work and therefore the organisation.
- Helps establish mutual affection between the corporate and therefore the candidate and build the company’s image.
According to Richard Calhoon, job interview serves the subsequent three objectives:
First, it's the sole thanks to see an applicant in action – how he looks, his manner, his bearing.
Second, it's the sole thanks to witness how he interacts and the way he responds, his way of thinking, the effect of his personality on others.
Third, it's perhaps the simplest thanks to get at the ‘will do’ features of a performance- motivation, initiative, stability, perseverance, work, habits and judgments.
2.4 TYPES OF INTERVIEWS:
Employment Interview or Selection Interview: the foremost important and widely used interview types are job interview or selection interview. this sort of interview is conducted to seek out out potential suitable candidates for the vacant positions.
a crucial objective of job interview is to assess the suitability of candidates for jobs. In most organizations, employment or selection interviews are taken by a panel of interviewers. the target of such interview is to prolong and reveal important aspects of the candidate’s personality which are relevant to the requirements of the work. it's also referred to as job selection interview.
- Assessment or Appraisal Interview: An appraisal interview is conducted to appraise or assess the general performance of the workers. it's usually held once a year.
By assessment interview, the employer tends to understand the employee’s performance and shortcomings. it's also possible to seek out out the employee’s ambition, motivation, interest and therefore the state of his morale by appraisal interview.
2. Promotion Interview: In organizational laddering system, employees are promoted to higher ranks counting on their skill and job performance. Promotion interview is an interview that's conducted so as to pick the simplest candidate from the workers for promotion to higher post. purpose of such interview is to live the attitude of the person and his fitness to require up the responsibility of the upper post. The interview also provides a chance to the management to form the person conscious of the responsibilities he will need to shoulder.
3. Termination Interview: Termination interview takes place when the manager calls problem employees to tell them the causes of termination of job. Sometimes it's going to be inevitable to warn the workers who are continuously violating the principles of the organization. In such case, the management reminds them the explanations of termination of job but wants to retain relationship if they abide by the organizational rules.
4. Conflict Resolution Interview: If an interview takes place to resolve conflict between two rival groups within the organization. it's called conflict resolution interview. during this interview the solicitor or moderator of the interview tries to form the conflicting parties approximate, minimize their misunderstanding, build positive attitudes and eradicate conflict.
5. Exit Interview: The exit interview takes place when the worker is leaving the organization either voluntarily or through dismissal. This sort of interview is extremely important for a corporation for several reasons. Firstly, the management can determine the rationale for the employee’s decision to go away and may clear up any misunderstanding or ill feeling which may have developed. Secondly, the management tries to urge the worker’s assessment of the corporate in terms of its employee relations, PR, sales policies etc. His opinions are going to be usually representative of the overall opinions of the staff and can be useful to switch its employee policy.
6. Problem Interview: An interview where a drag employee attends as an interviewee and therefore the management as interviewer is named a drag interview. When the performance of an employee is unsatisfactory in spite of warnings by his supervisor, an interview is more likely to point out an answer than simply another warning. the target of such interview is to seek out out the explanations behind the poor performance of the worker for instance, dissatisfaction with the work, domestic or personal problem, poor health and lack of adjustment to the environment or to the work. Giving advice and suggestions and to assist the worker to beat the matter also are some major purposes of problem interview.
7. Grievance Interview: many of us are working in a corporation especially in large organization there could also be some grievances with some employees that are to be removed immediately. In such cases manager calls the grieved employees in interview to understand their resentment and pacifies them to attenuate these as early as possible. this sort of interview is understood as grievance interview.
8. Reprimand Interview: Reprimand interview takes place when the management criticizes an employee severely by taking him to his room for a few undesirable statement or action. Sometimes the manager summons the worker to his room and talks to him in his official capacity. A reprimand may be a sort of disciplinary action likely to be resented by the workers. The objectives of such interview are to enhance the work performance of the workers, to stop the recurrence of such offences and to guard the opposite employees from the malaise of anti-organizational behavior. There are two aspects of reprimand interview. The disciplinary aspect where the worker is run a warning and therefore the guidance aspect where the worker is helped to enhance his performance.
- Limitations of Interview:
Research studies have firmly established that, among all selection methods, interview has been the foremost researched and punctiliously documented method.
However, interview suffers from some limitations also.
- Interviewers might not have a clearly defined technique developed. This leads to lack of validity in evaluation of the candidate.
- there's always variation in offering scoring points to the candidate by the interviewers.
- Interview can help judge the personality of the candidate but not his ability for the work.
- one characteristic of the candidate acknowledged on the idea of interview, may affect the judgment of the interviewer on other qualities of the applicant. this is often called ‘halo effect’.
- The biases of interviewers may cloud the objectivity of interview.
- Finally, interview may be a time consuming and expensive device of selection.
The above listed limitations or defects in interview underline the necessity for observing certain guidelines to form interviews simpler.
Meeting is one among the main media of speech. generally, sense a gathering may be a gathering of two or more persons with the view of creating decisions through discussion.
It is an assembly of individuals does choose some preset issues. Definition of business meeting, Meaning of business meeting, importance of business meeting, Objectives of business meeting discuses below-
ACCORDING TO OXFORD DICTIONARY, “A MEETING IS an event WHEN PEOPLE close to debate OR DECIDE SOMETHING.”
MURPHY AND HILDEBRANDT SAID, “A MEETING may be a GATHERING OF TWO OR MORE PEOPLE WHERE PURPOSIVE DISCOURSE OCCURS.”
- Business Meeting
A meeting may be a gathering where two or more people assemble along side a view to taking some decisions on some preset issues though mutual discussion. Every organization, large or small, arranges good number of meetings on certain interval to debate and choose on different issues.
- Purposes of Business Meeting
Meetings is one among the main media of speech. it's essentially important for each organization. the essential objective of meeting is to require decisions on some predetermined issues.
It has also another purposes. The objectives or purposes or importance of meeting are discussed below-
- Making Decisions: The foremost objective of any meeting is to require important decisions on some predetermined issue. Decisions are taken here on consensus and it's very crucial to require decisions on routine and non-routine business affairs.
b. Exchanging Information: Meeting is arranged also to supply information to the audience about various matters of the organization. Audience also exchange information in meetings.
c. Conveying Organizational Vision, Mission and Operational Plans: Meetings also are called to convey organizational mission, vision and operational plans to the newly appointed employees. Managers or heads of varied departments call these sorts of meetings for the fresher in order that they will be better familiar with organizational culture, mission, vision, plans etc.
d. Announcing Changes: Another purpose of arranging meeting is to announce the upcoming changes brought in organizational policies, mission, vision, logo etc. before the audience. The causes, benefits and ground of such changes are explained within the meeting in order that people understand and accept the probable changes without much resistance.
e. Negotiation: Meeting is additionally involved making negotiations between the conflicting parties through fruitful discussion. Sometimes employers and employees or union leaders sit in meeting together to succeed in on some agreement in order that organizational activities are often run smoothly.
f. Resolving Conflict: In large organizations conflict among people is commonest. Healthy conflict helps to extend productivity but unhealthy or undesirable conflict must be resolved immediately after found. Meeting helps the conflicting parties to succeed in on common understanding and thus resolving or minimizing conflict.
g. Solving Problems: a crucial purpose of meeting is to supply solution to organizational problems. Problems that are critical and need opinions of most of the members of a board or council must be solved by calling meeting. In meeting diverse thoughts are found that help to face problem suitably.
h. Reviewing and Informing Progress: Meeting is additionally involved reviewing and informing the progress of any project, plan and activity then on. Form it the attendants of the meeting are ready to know this status of the projects and may provide their opinions to enhance if there's any loophole.
i. Celebrating Success: Meetings are often called to celebrate the success of the organization, completion of any project, achievement of any award etc. it increases the organizational harmony and motivates employees to figure united to realize more.
j. Interaction with External Stakeholders: Every organization is to figure with different parties of the society and it must build an extended term harmonious relationship with them. Meetings are called to exchange information and to share experience with different stakeholders of a corporation in order that their interaction with the firm is increased.
k. Conducting a gathering: If appropriate preparations are made, then the scene is about for an efficient meeting.
Agendas will be produced and circulated. Participants will arrive knowing what's to be discussed and with sufficient background information to form relevant contributions. If appropriate, they're going to have consulted with people they represent and discussed any pertinent issues.
‘Group’ is a collective that represents ‘a number of people or things that are located, gathered or classed together.’ ‘Dynamics’ is a Greek word that means “force”. Group Dynamics is thus the study of forces that operate either within a group i.e., ‘intra-group dynamics’ or between groups i.e. ‘inter-group dynamics’.
Group dynamics are the processes that occur between group members. These dynamics are suffering from each member's internal thoughts and feelings, their expressed thoughts and feelings, their nonverbal communication, and therefore the relationship between group members. social psychology helps you understand how each person's actions add up within the context of the group.
Systems theory describes how individuals behave within a system. As groups are considered systems, systems theory helps us begin to know social psychology. Systems theory involves understanding that social psychology may be a more complex process than simply summation the individual characteristics of every group member. Instead, social psychology is best understood by combining the characteristics of every group member, how each group member's actions affect the group, and the way these group interactions affect each group member. This creates a cyclical and reciprocal feedback circuit which simultaneously impacts all group members and every one group members' relationships.
Understanding Group Dynamics help to effectively solve the problems that exists in a group and to foster a team spirit. It also helps to enhance the strengths and opportunities of a group and to overcome its weaknesses and challenges.
1. The chairperson steers and controls the meetings.
2. he should monitor the discussions and see to it that members do not interrupt one another.
3. He should take care not to express his views.
4.The Chairperson must neither be very dominating nor very mild.
5. He should be fair and without prejudice, both towards issues, as well individuals.
6. He should adhere to the Agenda and do efficient time management.
7. The Chairperson should re-focus a discussion if it goes off the point.
8. He should try to bring about a consensus among members and if that does not happen the matter should be put to vote.
9. In case of a tie, the Chairperson must cast the casting vote.
10. Occasionally the Chairperson may have to intercede to resolve conflicts among participants.
11. If a need arises, the Chairperson must assist the Secretary.
12. At the end of the meeting the Chairperson must summarize proceedings. If decisions have not been arrived at, another meeting may be scheduled by the
13. The Chairperson must assign follow-up responsibilities to participate and ensure that the members fulfil their responsibilities.
14. At the end of a meeting, the Chairperson must thank the participate for their participation and contribution.
- Participants must read the Agenda and other relevant documents come prepared for discussion in a meeting.
2. They must arrive a little ahead of the scheduled time so that they refresh themselves before the meeting commences.
3. They must be open-minded. They must listen to the views of others be willing to modify their own views if they are convinced.
4. Active participation, not just passive presence is necessary for meaningful discussion.
5. No participant should dominate the discussion.
6. Controversial remarks, a subjective approach, sarcasm, cynicism, jeering, etc. must be strictly avoided.
7. Members should only ask relevant questions.
8. Questions should be asked only at a suitable time. No member should interrupt.
9. Participants should note down any action that has been agreed upon.
10. After the meeting, the participants must follow whatever has been agreed upon and has been assigned to them
The persons entitled to attend a gathering must be told of the time, place, date and business of the meeting in proper time.
The communication informing the persons entitled to attend the meeting about time, place, date and business of the meeting is named the ‘notice’.
To make the meeting valid, the notice must be served by the proper person by the proper means to all or any the persons entitled to attend the meeting. Usually, the notice is drafted and issued by the Secretary under the instruction of the Director of the corporate. A notice, so as to be valid, must be signed by the right authority.
The requisites of the meeting are often classified into the subsequent classes:
1. The notice must specify the precise date, time and place of the meeting.
2. The notice must state the character of business to be transacted at the meeting. an entire agenda is appended to the notice.
3. The notice should be served to all or any members entitled to attend the meeting.
4. The notice must be clear and unconditional.
5. Proper length of notice must tend in accordance with the principles of the organisation.
Notice of the primary committee meeting of company with an entire agenda.:
Indian National publisher
1 College Street, Calcutta 13
Dated 1st July 1999.
This is to tell that the primary meeting of the Board of Directors of the corporate are going to be held at its registered office at 1 College Street, Calcutta 13, on Tuesday, 22nd July 1999 at 3.P.M.
Your presence is solicited.
1. Election of the Chairman.
2. Adoption of the Memorandum of Association, Articles of Association and Certificate of Incorporation of the corporate.
3. Appointment of the primary Directors of the corporate
4. Appointment of the Chairman of the Board.
5. Appointment of the director.
6. Appointment of the Secretary with retrospective effect.
7. Appointment of the Bankers of the corporate and Auditors.
8. Fixation of the date of subsequent committee meeting.
9. the other business.
Notice for an Annual General Meeting of Chinsurah Cooperative Credit Society
Chinsurah Cooperative Credit Society Ltd.
Regd. Office: 6 Netaji Subhas Road
P.O. Chinsurah, Dist. Hooghly, 712103
1st July 1992
Notice is hereby as long as the 10th Annual General Meeting of the Society are going to be persisted 20th July 1992 at 3. P.M. at the registered office of the Secretary at 6 Netaji Subhas Rd, Chinsurah, to transact the subsequent business.
S. N. Sen
1. to verify the proceedings of the last meeting.
2. to think about the adoption of the Secretary’s Report.
3. to think about the adoption of the Audited Accounts of the year ended 31st March 1992.
4. to think about the question of declaring dividend.
5. To elect the administrators.
6. To adopt the allow 1992-93.
7. To repair up the borrowing power of the Society.
8. To think about the other business with the permission of the Chair.
A proposal that is put before a meeting to be adopted is known as a Motion It is voted for and if it is passed by the required majority it becomes a Resolution'. (A simple majority in case of an Ordinary Resolution and a three-fourth majority in case of a Special Resolution)
- Resolutions should preferably have headings and must begin with the word RESOLVED' written either in capital letters or in bold to make it noticeable.
- If a Resolution has more than one part, the first part should begin with the word 'RESOLVED' and subsequent parts must begin with the words 'FURTHER RESOLVED'
- The phrase, '.... be and is/are hereby' must be used in a Resolution only if an action is completed just by stating it. For example, RESOLVED that M/s. Abhishek Nair & Associates be and are hereby
appointed Solicitors for the Company for the Financial Year 2020 -21. (✓)
RESOLVED that the Company premises be and are hereby extended. (x)
- Specimens of Resolutions
1. Election of Chairperson
RESOLVED that Mr. Aasim All be and is hereby elected Chairman of the Board of Directors for the year 2020-21
2. Appointment of Secretary
RESOLVED that Mr. Z. Lallee be and is hereby appointed Company Secretary for the year 2020-21.
3. Issue of Prospectus
RESOLVED that the draft Prospectus prepared by Solicitors Ms. Abhishek Nair & Associates be and is hereby approved.
FURTHER RESOLVED that the Prospectus be printed; filed with the Registrar of Companies, Mumbai: issued to the public and be advertised in a leading newspaper with nation-wide circulation. FURTHER RESOLVED that the Company Secretary, Mr. Z. Lalljee be and is hereby assigned the responsibility of having the Prospectus printed and published.
4. Appointment of Bankers
RESOLVED that Bank of Maharashtra, Girgaum Branch, Mumbai be appointed as Bankers to the Company and that the said Bank be authorized to honour all cheques, Bills of Exchange, Promissory Notes or other Orders of Payment drawn on them.
5. Appointment of Auditors
RESOLVED that M/s. Chacha & Iver Associates, Chartered Accountants, 34, Rewa Chambers, New Marine Lines, Mumbai, be and are hereby appointed Auditors of the Company for the Financial Year 2020-21
FURTHER RESOLVED that the annual remuneration of the Auditors be and is hereby fixed at Rs. 5, 50,000
6. Resignation of a Director
RESOLVED that the resignation of Director, Mr.Parimal Chaudhary be and is hereby accepted with regret. The Board places on record their appreciation for the services rendered by Mr. Chaudhary.
7. Extension of Office Premises
RESOLVED that the premises of the Registered Office of the Company situated at Charni Road, Mumbai be extended by building an additional floor in the existing building.
FURTHER RESOLVED that the Company Secretary, Mr. Z. Lalljee being and is hereby authorized to secure on behalf of the Company the necessary Municipal permissions and to appoint a contractor for the same after negotiating the cost and terms of the job in consultation with the Board of Directors.
8. Alteration of the Name of the Company
RESOLVED that the name of the Company be changed from 'Aerial Auto Limited' to 'Aero Auto Limited' and that the Company Secretary, Mr.Z. Lalljee be and is hereby authorized to legally process the matter.
9. Approval of Budget
RESOLVED that the renovation budget of the Company premises amounting to Rs. 25, 00,000/- lakhs be and is hereby approved.
10. Declaration of Dividend
RESOLVED that a dividend@ 15/- per Share on 10,000 Preference Shares and 17- per Share on 15,000 Ordinary Shares of the declared. Company (both being subject to Income Tax) be and are hereby declared.
FURTHER RESOLVED that the dividend amounts will be paid January 15, 2020 only to those Shareholders whose names were on the Company Register on October 31, 2019.
- CHARACTERISTICS OF A CONFERENCE
- There is no maximum or minimum number of participants. The number of participants should be reasonable, depending upon the subject of their conference and so that there can be a meaningful discussion.
- Participants do not have voting rights.
3. A conference is a platform for serious intellectual discussion.
4. Decisions cannot be taken at a conference.
5. There are no formal office bearers in a conference.
6. Participants at a conference are known as delegates or conferees.
- ADVANTAGES OF CONFERENCES
- Conferences encourage and facilitate an exchange of ideas and opinions.
2. At conferences problems are studied in detail and from different angles.
3. At conferences there is face to face communication and immediate feedback.
4. At conferences there is scope for consultation. Trade unions, customers etc. can be consulted and their reactions can be known and can be effectively implemented.
5. If employees are allowed to participate in a conference they get motivated. It also helps to develop their administrative, secretarial and IT skills.
7. Conferences help to develop the executive talent of delegates and give then valuable experience in analyzing problems, judging between alternatives etc. They also help to broaden a person's outlook.
6. Conferences enhance the image of the organizers and sponsors of the conference.
8. The discussions at conferences provide a valuable base for committee activities in future.
- DISADVANTAGES OF CONFERENCES
1. Conferences are not decision-making bodies and therefore they often become a fruitless intellectual exercise. They become a dog which has bark, but not a bite.
2. Conferences are costly in terms of time and money.
3. If the Chairperson is too weak or too dominating, the conference activity suffers.
4. When employees are allowed to participate in a conference they ma misunderstand that the Management is weak and dependent on them.
5. Sometimes only a few delegates dominate the discussion. This results in a limited exchange of ideas.
6.A few obstructionist delegates may derail the conference proceedings.
7. Sometimes vague and unrealistic conclusions are arrived conferences.
A Teleconference is also called a 'Phone Meeting or an Audio Meeting nit a conference s conducted via a telephone or a network connection with suitable software.
1. It facilitates more than two or more people to interact simultaneously using a telephone line.
2. It is moderately priced.
3. It is time and money-saving since it reduces the need to travel to meet in person.
Videoconferencing is a medium which provides real-time two-way audio video communication between the participants over a distance. The participant must be connected with a computer or a smart phone fitted with a camera, a internet connection and suitable software. Satellite Video Conferencing is the method used in regions where there is little or no net connectivity.
Videoconferencing may either be Point-to-Point or Multi-Point. A Point to Point (two persons) videoconferencing system works like a video telephone. As the to communicants speak to one another, their voices are carried over the network and are delivered to each other and whatever images appear in front of the video camera appear on the window of the speaker's Multi-Point (three or more persons)
videoconferencing allows more than two participants to sit in a virtual conference room and communicate as if they are sitting right beside each other.
1. Videoconferencing is widely used for academic activities. It has made it easy and possible to reach out to experts who are often inaccessible due to time and distance constraints.
2. It is widely used for business activities. It has given a boost to international business and trade.
3. Videoconferencing is widely used by television channels for talk shows and debates.
4. This technology has made interaction between people from different countries and cultures more convenient, immediate and possible.
5. Videoconferencing can include media such as video clips, animations, audio and graphics.
6. Since it is a multi-pronged method of communication, understanding and retention are better.
Public relations may be a strategic communication process companies, individuals, and organizations use to create interdependent relationships with the general public.
A PR specialist drafts a specialized communication plan and uses media and other direct and indirect mediums to make and maintain a positive brand image and a robust relationship with the audience.
- Objective of PR
The main objective of PR is to take care of a positive reputation of the brand and maintain a strategic relationship with the general public, prospective customers, partners, investors, employees and other stakeholders which results in a positive image of the brand and makes it seem honest, successful, important, and relevant.
- Functions of PR
Public relations are different from advertising. PR agencies don’t buy ads, they don’t write stories for reporters, and that they don’t specialise in attractive paid promotions. They rather promote the brand by using editorial content appearing on magazines, newspapers, news channels, websites, blogs, and television programs.
Using earned or free media for promotion has its own benefits as information on these mediums aren’t bought. it's a 3rd party validation and hence isn’t viewed with skepticism by the general public.
The functions of PR manager and PR agencies include:
- Anticipating, analysing, and interpreting the general public opinion and attitudes of the general public towards the brand and drafting strategies which use free or earned media to influence them.
- Drafting strategies to support brand’s every campaign and new move through editorial content.
- Writing and distributing press releases.
- Planning and executing special public outreach and media relations events.
- Writing content for the online (internal and external websites).
- Developing a crisis PR strategy.
- Handling the social media presence of the brand and responding to public reviews on social media websites.
- Counselling the workers of the organization with reference to policies, course of action, organization’s responsibility and their responsibility.
- Dealing with government and legislative agencies on behalf of the organization.
- Dealing with public groups and other organizations with reference to social and other policies of the organization and legislation of the govt.
- Handling investor relations.
- Types of PR
According to the functions of the general public relations department/agencies, PR are often divided into 7 types. These are:
- Media Relations: Establishing an honest relationship with the media organizations and acting as their content source.
2. Investor Relations: Handling investors events, releasing financial reports and regulatory filings, and handling investors, analysts and media queries and complaints.
3. Government Relations: Representing the brand to the govt. with reference to fulfilment of policies like corporate social responsibility, fair competition, consumer protection, employee protection, etc.
4. Community Relations: Handling the social aspect of the brand and establishing a positive reputation within the social niche like environment protection, education, etc.
5. Internal Relations: Counselling the workers of the organization with reference to policies, course of action, organization’s responsibility and their responsibility. Cooperating with them during special product launches and events.
6. Customer Relations: Handling relationships with the target market and lead consumers. Conducting marketing research to understand more about interests, attitudes, and priorities of the purchasers and crafting strategies to influence an equivalent using earned media.
7. Marketing Communications: Supporting marketing efforts concerning product launch, special campaigns, brand awareness, image, and positioning
The Public Relations of an organization may be classified as follows:
- Internal Public Relations i.e., relations among and between staff members and the Management.
- External Public Relations i.e., relations of the organization with stakeholders outside the organization.
- MEASURES TO PROMOTE INTERNAL PUBLIC RELATIONS
1. Employee Motivation: Employees should be given both External, at well as Internal Motivation. External Motivation is essentially money based. It includes a good salary, bonus, medical and other allowances comfortable conditions at the place of work etc. Internal Motivation includes appreciation, awards, recognition etc.
2. Film Shows, In-house Journals, Wallpapers/Notice Boards etc.: Instructional and informative films, In-house Wallpapers/Notice Boards etc. that give information about the activities, services, products etc. of an organization, as well as news, photographs and contributions of and by employees give the employees a sense of belonging and pride and promote Internal Public Relations.
3. Radio and Television: Radio and Television sets installed in canteens, common rooms etc. help staff members to relax and provide them with recreation. They also facilitate social interaction among staff members and result in improved Internal Public Relations.
4. Product/Photographic Exhibitions: In current times there is high level division of labour and specialization. As a result, a worker knows only his specific job in the production process and is often deprived of al sense of job satisfaction. Product / Photographic Exhibitions give al worker a chance to see himself as a part of the production process. They give a worker a sense of participation and identity and boost his
5. Visits to Sister Institutions: search visits promote informal and non-formal education, social interaction and fellow feeling. They also facilitate the healthy exchange of ideas.
- MEASURES TO PROMOTE EXTERNAL PUBLIC RELATIONS
1. Electronic Media: In a country like India where the literacy level is low, Radio Television & Cinema are important media of communication. External Public Relations can be promoted with the help of these media either by direct or indirect promotion and advertising or by sponsoring programmes with social messages.
2. Print Media: Advertisements and Reports in newspapers and magazines that show an organization in a positive light help to promote External Public Relations. They also help to clear doubts and misunderstandings about the organization, its products, policies etc.
3. Literature: These include leaflets, pamphlets, booklets etc. that are published and distributed by an organization, usually along with a product, free of cost. For example, Baby Care books distributed by Nestle, Recipe Books distributed along with Prestige Pressure Cookers etc.
4. Questionnaires and Opinionnaires: Organizations can arrange to collect feedback from customers about their products/services through questionnaires and opinionnaires. These give customers a sense of importance and participation and increase customer loyalty, to encourage public participation some organizations even announce prizes for the Best Suggestion, Best Slogan etc.
5. Open House: This method of promoting Public Relations is very popular in the advanced countries of the world. In this, customers, shareholders, suppliers, dealers, members of the Press etc. are given an open invitation to visit the premises of an organization and to see for themselves how the organization functions. The Open House policy adds a personal touch and gives an impression of honesty and fair play about the organization.
- Business communication - Vipul Prakashan
- Business communication - Manan Prakashan
- Business Communication – Dr. V.K.Jain