UNIT2
Sequence and series
Sequence– A function f : N , where S is a nonempty set , is called sequence , for each nϵN. The sequence is written as f(1) , f(2) , f(3) , f(4)……….f(n). Any sequence f(n) can be denoted as <f(n)> or {f(n)} or (f(n)). Suppose f(n) = Then it can be written as  and can be denoted as <>or {} or () is the n’th term of the sequence.
Example: suppose we have a sequence – 1 , 4 , 9 , 16 ,……….. and its n’th term is This sequence can be written as <>
Example: its n’th term will be .and can be written as <>
Types of sequences – 1. Finite sequence A sequence which has finite number of terms is called finite sequence. 2. Infinite sequence A sequence which is not finite , called infinite sequence.
Limit of a Sequence A sequence <> is said to tend to limit “l” , when given any positive number ‘ϵ’ , however small , we can always find a integer ‘m’ such that  – l <ϵ , for every for all, n≥m , and we can define this as follows,
Example: If , then the limit of will be, = = = ½
Hence the limit of the sequence is 1/2 .
Some important limits to remember
Convergent sequence A sequence Sn is said to be convergent when it tends to a finite limit. That means the limit of a sequence Sn will be always finite in case of convergent sequence. Divergent sequence when a sequence tends to ±∞ then it is called divergent sequence. Oscillatory sequence when a sequence neither converges nor diverges then it is called oscillatory sequence.
Note a sequence which neither converges nor diverges , is called oscillatory sequence. A sequence converges to zero Is called null.
Example1: consider a sequence 2, 3/2 , 4/3 , 5/4, …….. hereSn = 1 + 1/n Sol. As we can see that the sequence Sn is convergent and has limit 1. According to def. Example2: consider a sequence Sn= n² + (1)ⁿ. Sol. Here we can see that, the sequence Sn is divergent as it has infinite limit. Example: suppose , here the sequence is said to be oscillate. Because it is between 2 and 2.
Series Infinite series If is a sequence , then is called the infinite series. It is denoted by . Examples of infinite series
Covergent series  suppose n→∞ , Sn→ a finite limit ‘s’ , then the seiresSn is said to be convergent . We can denote it as, Divergent series when Sn tends to infinity then the series is said to be divergent. Oscillatory series whenSn does not tends to a unique limit (finite or infinite) , then it is called Oscillatory series. Properties of infinite series – 1. the convergence and divergence of an infinite series is unchanged addition od deletion of a finite number of term from it. 2. if positive terms of convergent series change their sign , then the series will be convergent. 3. Let converges to s , let k be a nonzero fixed number then converges to ks. 4. Let converges to ‘l’ and converges to ‘m’.
Example1: check whether the series is convergent or divergent. Find its value in case of convergent. Sol. As we know that, Sn = Therefore, Sn = Now find out the limit of the sequence, = ∞ Here the value of the limit is infinity, so that the series is divergent as sequence diverges.
Example2: check whether the series is convergent or divergent. Find its value in case of convergent.
Sol. The general formula for this series is given by, Sn = = ) We get, ) = 3/2 Hence the series is convergent and its values is 3/2.
Example3: check whether the series is convergent or divergent. Sol. The general formula can be written as, We get on applying limits, ) = 3/4 This is the convergent series and its value is 3 / 4
Example4: check whether the following series is convergent or divergent. If convergent, find its value.
Sol. n’th term of the series will be,
General properties of series The general properties of series are 1. The nature of a series does not change by multiplication of all terms by a constant k. 2. The nature of a series does not change by adding or deleting of a finite number of terms. 3. If two series and are convergent, then is also convergent.
Exampple1: prove that the following series is convergent and find its sum.
Sol. Here, And Hence the series is convergent and the limit is 1/2 .
Example2: Test the convergence of the series Sol. Here we can see that the given series is in geometric progression As its first term is 1 and common ratio is ½. Then we know that the sum of n terms of a geometric progression is Hence the limit will be So that the series is convergent. 
Key takeaways
 A function f : N , where S is a nonempty set , is called sequence , for each nϵN.
 A sequence Sn is said to be convergent when it tends to a finite limit.
 When a sequence tends to ±∞ then it is called divergent sequence.
 If two series and are convergent, then is also convergent.
Positive term series If all the terms in an infinite series are positive after few negative terms , then the series said to be a positive term series. Suppose , 2265+ 55 +69 99+125+………….is a positive term series. If we remove these negative terms, then the nature of the series does not change. Comparison test Statement Suppose we have two series of positive terms and then, , where k is a finite number , then both series converges or diverges together.
Proof we know that by the definition of limits, there exist a positive number epsilon(ε) Which is very small. Such that According to definition (comparison test) <ε for n>m , that means kε< for n>m ignoring the first m terms of the series, we get kε< for n>m for all n ………………..(1) there will be two cases case1: is convergent , then () = r (say) , where r is finite number From (1), ()<() = Therefore is also convergent. Case2: : is divergent, then ()→∞ …………………………..(2) From eq. (1) Then ()<() From(2) ()→∞ Hence, is also divergent.
Example: Test the convergence of the following series. Sol. We have First we will find and the
And Here, we can see that, the limit is finite and not zero, Therefore, and converges or diverges together. Since is of the form where p = 2>1 So that , we can say that, is convergent , so that will also be convergent.
Example: Test the convergence of the following series Sol. Here we have the series, Now, Now comapare We can see that the limit is finite and not zero. Here and converges or diverges together since , is the form of here p = 1, So that, is divergent then is also divergent.
Example: Show that the following series is convergent. Sol. Suppose,
Which is finite and not zero. By comparison test and converge or diverge together. But, Is convergent. So that is also convergent.
Example: Test the series: Sol. The series is, Now, Take,
Which is finite and not zero. Which is finite and not zero. By comparison test and converge or diverge together. But, Is divergent. ( p = ½) So that is divergent. 
Key takeaways
 Suppose we have two series of positive terms and then,
 , where k is a finite number, then both series converges or diverges together.
Statement suppose is a series of positive terms such that then, 1. if k<1 , the series will be convergent. 2. if k>1 , then the series will be divergent. Proof: Case1: We know that from the definition of limits ,it follows, But, Is the finite quantity. So is convergent. Case2:
There could be some finite terms in starting which will never satisfy the condition, In this case we can find a number ‘m’, Ignoring the first ‘m’ terms, if we write the series as We have , in this case
So that is divergent.
Example: Test the convergence of the series whose n’th term is given below n’th term = Sol. We have and By D’Alembert ratio test, So that by D’Alembert ratio test , the series will be convergent.
Example: Test for the convergence of the n’th term of the series given below Sol. We have , Now , by D’Almbert ratio test converges if and diverges if At x = 1 , this test fails. Now , when x = 1 The limit is finite and not zero. Then by comparison test, converges or diverges together. Since is the form of , in which Hence diverges then will also diverge. Therefore in the given series converges if x<1 and diverges if x≥1. 
Key takeaways

Statement suppose is a series of positive terms such that, , then 1. the series is convergent if k>1 2.the series is divergent if k<1. 3. test fails at k = 1 Proof: let us consider the series,
Case1: in this case, We choose a number ‘p’ for all k > p >1 , comparing thr series with which is divergent , We get will converge if after some fixed numver of terms , That means, If k >p , which Is true . hence is convergent. We can prove the second case similarly.
Example1: Test the convergence of the following series.
Sol. Neglecting the first term the series can be written as,
So that,
By ratio test converges if x<1 and diverges if x>1, but if x = 1 the the test fails, now
By Raabes’s test converges hence the given series is convergent when x≤ 1 and divergent If x >1.
Example2: Test the convergence of the series, Sol. As we will neglect the first term, we get By ration test is convergent when x<1 and divergent when x>1, when x= 1, The rario test fails, then By Rabee’s test is convergent , hence the given series is convergent when x≤ 1 and divergent If x >1.
Example3: Test the nature of the following series: Sol.
By ration test is convergent when (x/4)<1 and divergent when x>4, when x= 4, The rario test fails, then
By Rabee’s test is convergent , hence the given series is convergent when x<4 and divergent If x >=4.
Example: Check for the convergence of the following series: Where x>0. Sol. Here , we have the series, Neglecting the first term , we get we get the limit, By ratio test, is convergent if and divergent if But at , the ratio test fails, Now we will apply Raabe’s test So that by Raabe’stest , the series converges. Therefore is convergent is and divergent if 
Statement Suppose is series with positive terms such that Then, 1. if k>1 , then the series is convergent. 2. if k<1 , then the series is divergent.
Proof: if k>1 Compare with , if k>p>1 then converges. Taking log on both sides, we get k>p which is true as k>p>1 hence is convergent. When p<1, Similarly when p<1, then is divergent. At p = 1 , then this test fails.
Example: Test the convergence of the following series: Sol. We have the series, Here , And
Which gives, , the series is convergent. If , the series is divergent. . Thus the series is divergent. 
Let be a series of positive terms and let Then is convergent when l<1 and diverges when l >1. Proof: case1: Or Since, Is a geometric series with common ratio <1 so that the series will be convergent. Case 2: By the limit concept, we can find a number, That means After 1st ‘r’ terms , each term is > 1 So that the series is divergent.
Example: Test the convergence of the series whose nth term is given below Sol. By root test is convergent.
Example: Test the convergence of the series whose nth term is given below Sol.
By root test is convergent.
Example: show that the following series is convergent. Sol. By root test is convergent.
Example: Test the convergence of the following series:
Sol. Here, we have,
Therefore, the given series is convergent. 
A positive term series ∅(1) + ∅(2) +∅(3) + ∅(4)+ …………..∅(n) + ……… Where ∅(n) decreases as n increases , is convergent or divergent according as the integral is finite or infinite.
Proof: suppose, Sn = ∅(1) + ∅(2) +∅(3) + ∅(4)+ …………..∅(n) Here n = 1,2,3,4,………n , n+1, …….. Hence the total area under the curve ( see fig) lies between the sum of areas of all interior rectangles and sum of the area of all exterior rectangles So that,
As n tends to infinity , then limit of Sn will be finite or infinite according as is finite or infinite.
Example1: determine the following series is convergent or divergent. Sol. By using integral test = ∞ By the integral test, given series is divergent as
Example2: Test the series by integral test
Sol. Here is positive and decreases when we increase n , Now apply integral test, Let, X = 1 , t = 5 and x = ∞ , t = ∞, Now, So by integral test, The series is divergent.
Example3: Test the series by integral test Sol. Here decreases as n increases and it is positive. By using integral test, = We get infinity, So that the series is divergent. 
1. If the series of terms Be such that the series +++…++….. Is convergent, then the series is said to be absolutely convergent. 2. If is divergent but is convergent, then said to be conditionally convergent
Absolute convergent A series is said to be absolutely convergent if the series is convergent.
For example suppose the following series, By p series test, we can say that is convergent. Hence is absolutely convergent. Note if the series has positive terms and it is convergent then this series will be absolutely convergent too. An absolute convergent series will be convergent but the converse may not be true.
Conditional convergence: If the series is divergent and is convergent then is said to be conditionally convergent
Example: Show that the series is absolutely convergent. Sol. We have,  = and  = The first condition and second conditions are 1. <  2. Both the conditions are satisfied. So that we can say that by Leibnitz’s rule, the series is convergent. The series is also convergent by ptest as p = 2 > 1. Hence the given series is absolutely convergent.
Example: Test the convergence/Divergence of the series: Sol. Here the given series is alternately negative and positive , which is also a geometric infinite series. 1. suppose, S = According to the conditions of geometric series, Here , a = 5 , and common ratio (r) = 2/3 Thus, we know that, So , Sum of the series is finite , which is 3. So we can say that the given series is convergent. Now. Again sum of the positive terms, The series is geometric, then A = 5 and r = 2/3 , then Sum of the series, Sum of the series is finite then the series is convergent. Both conditions are satisfied , then the given series is absolutely convergent.
Example: Test the series for absolute/conditional convergence. Sol. The given series is an alternating series of the form, Here, 1. 2. And, Hence bt Leibnitz’s test , the given series is convergent , But, Is divergent by pseries test. So that, the given series is conditionally convergent.
Example: Test for the convergence of the series: Sol. The given series is, By ratio test series converges, so that the series is convergent.
Example: Test for absolute convergence: Sol. Let the series is , By ratio test, is convergent , if x<1. is absolutely convergent if x< 1.
Power series A series of the form Where all the ‘a’ are independent of x, is known as power series in x Interval for convergence In this power series D’Almbert’s ratio test If , then by ratio test, the power series is convergent, when is less than 1. Or in other way if x<1/ then the series converges and diverges for other values. Thus the interval of convergence of power series is
Example1: If the series converges, then find the value of x. Sol. Here Then, By D’Almbert’s ratio test the series is convergent for x<1 and divergent if x>1. So at x = 1 The series becomes At x = 1
This is an alternately convergent series. This is also convergent series, p = 2 Here, the interval of convergence is
Example2: If the series converges, then find the value of x. Sol. Here Then, By D’Almbert’s ratio test the series is convergent for <1 or 1x>1 Or At x = 0, the series becomes which is divergent harmonic series. At x = 2, the series becomes It is an alternate series which is convergent by Leibnitz rule. So that the series . 
Let’s first define the exponential functions A function which contains where e is the constant, called an exponential function. Here ‘e’ is the exponent which has an approximate value 2.7183
The power series for The value of can be defined in terms of the following power series: If we obtain an actual value of by adding all the terms of the series, then the series is said to be convergent. The more terms we take in the series, the closer will be the value of to its actual value.
Example: Find the value of 5, correct to five decimal places by using the power series for . Sol. As we know that the exponential series is
Here we get Now
Example: Expand as far as the term in . Sol. We know that the power series for is Here we have to find So that On solving, we get
Trigonometric and log function As we know that, And By adding these equations And subtracting (2) from (1), we get Note
Example1: Verify Sol. As we know that And Hence, and That means
The following function is a logarithmic function ‘a’ is any value which is greater than 0, except 1 The natural logarithmic function is The value of e = 2.71828182….
Properties of logarithms 1. 2. 3. 4. then x = y
Example: Simply the logarithm Sol. We can write this as = 3
Example: Simplify Sol. We know that So that 
References
 E. Kreyszig, “Advanced Engineering Mathematics”, John Wiley & Sons, 2006.
 P. G. Hoel, S. C. Port And C. J. Stone, “Introduction To Probability Theory”, Universal Book Stall, 2003.
 S. Ross, “A First Course in Probability”, Pearson Education India, 2002.
 W. Feller, “An Introduction To Probability Theory and Its Applications”, Vol. 1, Wiley, 1968.
 N.P. Bali and M. Goyal, “A Text Book of Engineering Mathematics”, Laxmi Publications, 2010.
 B.S. Grewal, “Higher Engineering Mathematics”, Khanna Publishers, 2000.
 T. Veerarajan, “Engineering Mathematics”, Tata McgrawHill, New Delhi, 2010
 Higher engineering mathematics, HK Dass