Language involves both the ability to comprehend spoken and written words and to create communication in real time when we speak or write. Most languages are oral, generated through speaking. Speaking involves a variety of complex cognitive, social, and biological processes including operation of the vocal cords, and the coordination of breath with movements of the throat, mouth, and tongue.
The use of language changes considerably depending upon the channel of communication. For example, it is easier to use multiple independent and subordinate clauses along with complicated vocabulary while writing but it becomes difficult to do the same while speaking. When speaking one tends to use a simpler form of the language.
There are certain elements of a language which only come into play while speaking such as pronunciation, intonation, word stress and accent. If one is already familiar with a certain language, learning the proper spoken form of another language can be a difficult task as it would involve re-structuring one’s whole biological structure of speaking.
For non-native English speakers, the influence of their first language can be a very big problem when it comes to pronunciation. If up to later age, the sole language we speak is our mother tongue, tons of the speech patterns get set in the human brain. Each language has peculiar sounds and combinations of consonants and vowels. If we start speaking multiple languages from infancy, we easily retain the pliability of uttering sounds from different language systems. Our brains can be easily trained for various sounds from different languages. But if we don't receive that training in our childhood, our brains get familiar with the sounds on just one language and at a later stage it becomes very difficult to coach the brain for a completely different audio system needed for the second language.
Spoken language usually involves of more use of personal pronouns, shorter thought units than written language that are easier to follow, more repetition of words and phrases to emphasise ideas, use of colloquial words and contractions to create a lively conversational tone, use of familiar vocabulary to ensure that the listener understands what the speaker is saying and fewer references to previously stated information.
The word “Communication” has come from the Latin word “communis”, which suggests common. Thus, communication signifies sharing of ideas in common. The dictionary meaning of communication is to convey or exchange information and share ideas.
It is a process through which two or more persons transmit or exchange thoughts and concepts among themselves. W. H. Newman and C. F. Summer define communication as, “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons.”
Communication is the process of transferring information by means of speaking, reading, listening and writing. Although the act of communication is heavily dependent on these four skills, it goes beyond these and also incorporate non-verbal elements such as body language, expressions, sign language, electronically transmitted codes (Morse code etc.) etc. It is both an art and a science.
Although every individual communicates simply by being in the world, learning effective communication skills requires hard work and determination. Developing good verbal and body language skills involves learning and consciously using your skills to improve.
One must be thoroughly familiar with all styles of correspondence in order to facilitate effective communication. The form of communication intrinsically depends upon the purpose and the central idea of the message to be conveyed. For example, it is feasible to acquire information or provide information using a formal phone call or an email whereas while conveying bad news to a particular individual a face-to-face conversation is considered rather apt.
Communication can be formal or informal
- Formal communication: Formal Communication is the exchange of official information that flows along the different levels of the organizational hierarchy and conforms to the prescribed professional rules, policy, standards, processes and regulations of the organization.
- Informal communication: Informal Communication is the casual and unofficial form of communication wherein the information is exchanged spontaneously between two or more persons without conforming the prescribed official rules, processes, system, formalities and chain of command.
Communication serves several major important functions within any group or organization. These are:
- Information: English communication facilitates decision-making, by passing information from one party to another. News channels, newspapers, current affairs all provide information regarding the daily events taking place in the word, this keeping one well informed. The primary object of communication is to inform the members of an organization of its goal and acquaint them with all the relevant information. This helps the commercial enterprise to attain success through concerted efforts of all the people concerned. It is a indisputable fact that well-informed people are able to perform better.
2. Advice: One of the objectives of business communication is to advise a person or a group of individuals. The manager advises the subordinates about the ways and means of higher performance. Advice involves personal opinion and it influences the opinion and action of the respective person(s) to whom advice is being given. Today’s business world is very complex and no one can be an expert in all the spheres of business. So, a businessman needs to take advice from experts regarding the matters in which they are not well-informed.
3. Order and Instruction: Instructional communication exists to provide directions or orders to a specific audience for teaching audience members new skills or presenting key information. This type of communication typically runs longer than other types of communication depending on how complex the subject is. An instructional communication from a builder, for instance, might detail all the steps needed to plan construction, install water and electrical systems, fire escape, blueprints and more.
4. Persuasion: To persuade means to make other people decide to do something, especially by repeatedly asking them or telling them the reasons why they should do it; in other words, influencing other people to believe or to try to what one wants. This is one of the important objectives of communication.
5. Motivation: Proper communicative English can be used to motivate employees to perform well. Motivational communication includes praising people for a well-done job, inspiring them to do even better and pointing out where they are going wrong and helping them rectify their mistakes. Motivational speakers also use communication as a tool to inspire and influence people.
6. Control: Communication in English serves a controlling function in a hierarchical structure. When a teacher has to control her students or a manager has to control his employees and ask them to perform the required tasks, controlling words and tone has to be used. This function is mostly applicable in a formal setting however there may be some exceptions (Parents and children).
7. Emotional Expression: Communication is useful tool for showing a whole range of emotions such as frustrations, happiness, anger. Therefore, it provides for the emotional expression of feelings which can be understood and provided with proper feedback.
8. Warning and Boosting Morale of Employees: It is significantly necessary to boost morale of a good worker. It will encourage him/her to strive for better performance and greater involvement. It makes the employee conscious about his/her responsibilities. On the other hand, it's also necessary to administer warning to the staff who tend to be undisciplined, non-accountable and unproductive or create disturbance. The objective of both appreciation and warnings can be accomplished through oral or written communication.
- The primary object of communication is to inform the members of an organization of its goal and acquaint them with all the relevant information.
- Today’s business world is very complex and no one can be an expert in all the spheres of business. So, a businessman needs to take advice from experts regarding the matters in which they are not well-informed.
- Instructional communication exists to provide directions or orders to a specific audience for teaching audience members new skills or presenting key information.
- Persuasion function means to make other people decide to do something, especially by repeatedly asking them or telling them the reasons why they should do it.
- Motivational communication includes praising people for a well-done job, inspiring them to do even better and pointing out where they are going wrong and helping them rectify their mistakes.
- Communication in English serves a controlling function in a hierarchical structure.
- The objective of both appreciation and warnings can be accomplished through oral or written communication.
The communication process comprises of the following components:
- Sender: Sender is the individual who wants to send the message to the receiver. A sender makes effective use of words, symbols, pictures, graphs etc. available to him to construct the message. The views, background, approach, skills, competencies, and knowledge of the sender determine whether the message is approachable or not.
2. Encoding: Since the subject matter of communication is theoretical and intangible, its further passing requires use of certain symbols such as words, actions or pictures etc. Conversion of subject matter into these symbols is the process of encoding.
3. Message: The message comprises of the information that is to be exchanged between the sender and the receiver. The central idea of the message must be clear and should be easily understood by the receiver.
The process of communication can be easily understood from the following flowchart:
4. Channel: The medium of communication should be chosen with respect to the purpose of the message and the ability of the receiver to comprehend it. Hence, the sender must choose an appropriate medium for transmitting the message. The channel can be oral or written, the use of oral medium is preferred when the message is urgent and requires an immediate response, the written medium is preferred when the message is technical and there is a need for it to be documented.
5. Decoding: The person who receives the message or symbol from the communicator tries to convert the same in such a way so that he may extract its meaning to his complete understanding.
6. Receiver: The receiver is the individual to whom the message is addressed. The ability of the receiver to decode the message depends on the knowledge of the receiver, the reliance of the encoder, responsiveness of the receiver to the message.
7. Feedback: After the receiver receives the message he tries to decode it, understand it and tried to provide a proper feedback to the sender, who then tries to interpret the feedback.
8. Noise: It is the hindrance in the process of communication. It can take place at any step in the entire process. It reduces the accuracy of communication e.g. 1) Disturbance in the telephone lines, 2) An inattentive receiver 3) Improper Decoding of Message etc.
The process of communication requires the sender and the receiver to posses 4 basic skills, they include:
One should understand the main ideas of most speech in a standard dialect.
One should be understood without difficulty by natives, and converse in a clear and participatory fashion.
One should be able to narrate and describe concrete and abstract topics using sustained, connected discourse.
One should easily follow the essential points of written text.
One should be able to address a variety of topics with significant precision and detail.
One should be able to organize writings with a sense of theoretical structure.
- “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons.” It is a process through which two or more persons transmit or exchange thoughts and concepts among themselves.
2. Communication is the process of transferring information by means of speaking, reading, listening and writing.
3. Process of Communication – Sender, Encoding, Message, Channel, Decoding, Receiver, Feedback, Noise.
4. Feedback is crucial in communication as it allows the sender of the message to know whether his message is received by the receiver and if the message is understood by the receiver in the same manner as it was intended by the sender.
5. The need for business communication extends to: Employee communication, Public relations, Internet marketing, Customer communications, Investor relations, Non-profit agencies, Entertainment, sports and travel, Government and military, Education.
This type of communication is carried out orally through direct or indirect channels. Sound is the only channel through which oral communication can take place. Face to face conversations, chatrooms, voice podcast, telephone conversations are some examples of oral communication.
Below are some types spoken communication:
Conversations are a tool and a vehicle for expressing ideas, feelings and experiences are very important. It's a great sight and a blessing and is one of the most important ways of preserving and expanding knowledge. One can better reveal one's mind, intentions, ideas, purpose and personality through word of mouth or speech. The man is known by his words and expressions. Speech expresses the inner man’s personality, thoughts and feelings.
Conversation is also participation, cooperation and communication. These are the best ways to communicate with a talk and the oldest and richest. Our oldest and most important religious and spiritual activities have been through oral communication, discussions and discussions. The promotion of information is vital to success, social interaction, business, learning and education. In a broad and general sense, the discussion is very comprehensive and includes speech, talk and public discourse. In conversation a talk is put on three-to-three people but in an interview or lecture it reaches a lot of people who make up a large audience.
In addition, talking is more or less an option. While conversation is about intimacy, education, equal participation, warmth, respect, etc. Good and pleasant conversation is an art in which the heart and mind are completely involved. It is respectful, fun, smart, endearing and intimate. Conversational art is crucial to influencing people to make friends, increase following and achieve success. It can be cultivated and developed. It is a great way to be caught by training, practice, patience and persistence.
The Four Types of Conversations: Debate, Dialogue, Discourse, and Diatribe:
When you talk to someone, it helps to know what kind of conversation you are having. You can do that depending on the direction of the communication (a one-way street or two) tone / purpose (competition or collaboration).
When you talk to one, you talk to somebody, rather than to somebody. When in a two-way conversation, participants listen and speak. In a competitive discussion, people are more concerned about their opinion, and in collaborative discussions participants are more inclined to view everyone involved.
Based on understanding and voice, I have organized the discussion into four types: debate, dialogue, speech and diatribe.
- Debate is a competitive, two-way conversation. The goal is to win an argument or to convince someone, such as a participant or a sidekick.
- Dialogue is a collaborative, two-way conversation. The role of the participants is to exchange information and build relationships with others.
- Discourse is a collaborative, harmonious conversation. The purpose is to bring information from the speaker / author to the audience / readers.
- Diatribe is a competitive and one-way conversation. The goal is to express feelings, to attack those who disagree with you, and / or to include those with the same opinion.
To highlight the differences between these types of conversations, let's use politics as an example:
Debate: two family members from opposite sides of the political spectrum argue for politics.
Dialogue: In the voting the two voters talk to each other about who they will vote for.
Discourse: a professor who gives lectures on international affairs.
Diatribe: An unassuming voter who goes public with the election results.
It is important to know what kind of conversation you are in, because that is what determines the purpose of the conversation. If you can see the purpose, you can better speak to the heart of that conversation. However, if you do not see the conversation clearly, you can fall into the traps of change.
A group discussion is a communicative situation that consists of more than two participants who share their views and opinions with other participants. It is an organized way of exchanging information, views and opinions about a problem, issue or topic among the members of a group who share some common objectives.
A group discussion is less formal when compared to meetings as it may have no structured order or specific agenda depending upon the requirement. The leadership is also less directive in group discussions as compared to meetings.
Group discussions emphasize process over product. Meaning, the emphasis in a group discussion is on how the participants interact with each other rather than the ultimate outcome of the discussion.
Given below are the basic principles of a group discussion:
- All members of the group should get a chance to speak about the given topic freely. They must be allowed to express their thoughts, opinions and feelings without restraint and also should be allowed to peruse and finish their thoughts completely without interruptions.
- All members of the group should be able to hear each other’s ideas and thoughts without any hindrance.
- Group members should be allowed to test unformed ideas and explore new territories.
- All members should be able to receive and provide constructive feedback. Feedback could be positive, negative or merely a correction of factual errors but must always be done respectfully.
- Since the discussion is one a singular topic, there are bound to be arguments and disagreements. Therefore, it must be always kept in mind that the group discussion serves a common purpose that is to inform and educate.
- A large number of thoughts and ideas should be discussed with different perceptions on them from all members instead of sticking to only facts.
- No group discussion should be dominated by a single person, all members should be given an equal chance to speak.
- Group discussions must be thought provoking and inspiring. Members must always feel like they are learning while involved in a group discussion.
Public speaking can be defined as a presentation which is given in front of a live audience. It is a performance-based art. The goal of public speaking may be to educate, influence or entertain the audience.
Public speakers often implement visual aids such as power-point presentations; relevant objects etc. to get their content across more easily.
Public speaking is different to an online presentation is the sense that an online presentation is made as per the viewer’s discretion whereas public speaking is performed at a specific time and place.
Public speaking consists of five main elements:
- The source of the message – The speaker
- The content or information to be delivered – The message
- To whom the message is addressed – The audience
- The medium of the message – Speaking
- The reaction of the audience – The Effect
It is significant to note that one of the most important rules of public speaking is to know one’s audience. In other words, the speaker must know how to talk to and influence his audience, to know which words will carry more effect, how his audience will react to a certain idea, what is the knowledge base or background of his audience etc.
A presentation is a formal talk given on a specific set of topics to inform and educate. They may be short or long, include slides or other visual aids, and be done individually or in a group.
Planning and structuring a presentation is similar to the process of writing an essay, except the speaker needs to be conscious of a live audience and use spoken language instead of written.
Below are the four basic skills required to create a successful presentation:
Step 1: Planning:
While planning a presentation, the following questions should be kept in mind:
- What is the aim of your research?
- Why are you presenting it in oral form?
- What is important about your findings?
- What is the key focus of your presentation?
- To whom are you presenting your findings?
- Are they more or less knowledgeable on the topic than you?
- What does your audience expect to gain from listening to you?
The presentation must be planned in such a way that it answers all these questions first before moving on to the structuring stage.
Step 2: Structuring the Presentation:
Like an essay, a presentation needs an introduction, body and a conclusion. The introduction may consist of an anecdote or provocative question to engage the audience right from the start. A question that includes your audience will make them want to follow through with you to find out the implications as they relate to them directly. The body will contain the main theme of the presentation where the ideas introduced earlier are explored thoroughly. The concluding statement should be a clear summary of what has been said in the main part of the presentation. It should also point toward further research or conclusive results if possible.
Step 3: Preparation:
Preparedness helps in easing nerves nous and boosts confidence. The following considerations should be kept in mind while preparing for presentations.
The presentation must be practiced a number of times to get the pacing right and to ensure the information can be contained in the time provided. Finishing too early might make the audience think that you lack proper material or understanding of the topic whereas finishing too late might make them feel boredom.
Speak from notes:
It's preferable to reduce the original paper to bullet points while presenting so as to not lose eye contact, intonation and good posture.
Use of gestures and good posture combined with a smile keeps the audience engaged and interested.
Loudness should be ample so that the audience can hear you clearly and the pace should be perfect so they can follow your arguments. Use silence and pauses effectively when making particular points, also speaking in monotone should be avoided.
Step 4: Presentation:
If all of the previous steps are followed carefully, one should be able to present easily and effectively. Questions should be welcomed and special attention should be given to the audience’s reactions and one’s own body language.
It should always be kept in mind what the purpose of the presentation is and all improvisations should be done in accordance to that purpose. The presentation should be ended with a polite “thank you” and all questions from the audience should be answered as clearly as possible.
Extempore is a type of impromptu speech given without any prior preparation. It is a format of public speaking where the speaker is given a topic and he/she has to speak on that topic there and then with no pre-meditation whatsoever.
In some cases, the speaker is given a few minutes to organize his thoughts before speaking but in most cases the speaker has to speak on the topic as soon as it is allotted to him.
Extempore tests the knowledge of the speaker as well as their ability to express themselves articulately in a limited amount of time.
Extempore tests the following abilities of a speaker:
- How quickly one can think of relevant information.
- How one analyses the topic and identifies the issue that is to be addressed.
- How prudent one is in generating ideas.
- Logical Thinking – organizing and prioritizing ideas sequentially.
- Ability to connect with the audience.
- Speaking communication skills such as choice of words, tone and vocal stops.
- Presentation skills such as body language, composure, posture, confidence etc.
To be an articulate speaker, one must practice their vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar as much as he can.
An elocution is a manner of delivering formal speech which focuses on the various elements of speaking such as pronunciation, articulation, vocabulary, accent, emphasis, inflections and gestures along with the subject matter of the speech.
Elocution tests the speaking skills of the orator and allows him to understand his faults providing him with room for improvement.
There are 6 key principles of elocution that must be learnt and mastered in order to have clear and precise speech. These principles are:
1. Articulation- This is defined as the ability to put thoughts into effective words, in order to phrase and enunciate words to deliver a proper speech.
2. Inflections- This is the ability to modulate the tone of speech so as to express a grammatical attribute of the word, such as tone, mood, gender etc.
3. Accent and Emphasis- The social surrounding of a speaker greatly influences how they speak. Learning to emphasise on the right syllables in order to pronounce words correctly, greatly improves an individual’s overall communication and understanding skills.
4. The Voice- The effectiveness of speech can be impacted by the tone and pitch of how words are pronounced. Modulating the voice while speaking helps avoid a monotonous tone and greatly improves the impact of the speech.
5. Gesture- The movement of hands, body language, and overall facial features while speaking greatly aid in the effectiveness of speech. Learning to control facial expressions for appropriate situations enables one to become a better, considerate speaker.
6. Instructions for Reading Verse- Effective reading enables one to learn proper stress on words in order to deliver an impactful speech. Phonetics also play a crucial role in helping develop correct speaking skills and reading a passage where one can identify the key areas to make an emphasis on.
This sort of correspondence includes any sort of trade of data in the composed structure. For instance, messages, emails, letters, reports, SMS, posts via web-based networking media, records, handbooks, banners, flyers, and so on.
Below are some common written communication forms:
There are many types of essays and papers you can write as a student. The content and length of the essay varies depending on your level, subject of study, and the requirements of a particular course.
However, many subject bodies share the same goal. They aim to convince students of a position or perspective through informed, evidence-based, analytical and interpretive debates.
In addition, every story has an introduction, body and ending that always do the same or few things.
Essay Writing Process:
The essay writing process consists of three stages: preparation, writing and revision. These categories apply to each article or paper. However, the time and energy spent in each category depends on the sort of essay, for instance a private statement, a press release of intent, a high school essay or a grad school essay.
- Understand the assignment
- Understand your audience
- Select a topic
- Do some initial research
- Name the thesis statement
- Create an outline
- Write an introduction
- Organize your arguments and give evidence
- Write the conclusion
- Analyse the organization
- Review the content of each paragraph
Writing letters is an art and a strategy. The latter can be followed by following formal meetings; the former must be nurtured with the care and deepest interest of man. The letters are generally divided into the following four categories: friendly or informal letters, business letters; invitations and responses, as well as the use of functions.
Letters can be formal or informal. They include:
Job application letter
Sales & credit letters
Letters of enquiry
Letters of quotation
Claim and adjustment letters
Letters to authorities
- Knowing What to Say:
Nothing is more harmful to good communication than muddle-headedness resulting in not being able to make one's point. Before writing a letter one should be sure of what one wants to say and accordingly one should be in command of all the necessary facts and information arranged logically and systematically.
Knowing what one wants to say is not enough unless one says it in as clear a Language as possible. Here comes the importance of the right word and the right expression put in a sentence constructed neatly and with precision. It should, however, be remembered that right words and write expressions become relevant only when they occur in the right place. Thus, emotional and even flowery language may be apposite to a personal Letter but it will be completely out of place in a business letter.
A few generations ago, when man enjoyed unlimited space and time, prolixity in language would not have been unwelcome, at Least in certain kinds of correspondence. In the modern age, however, addition of even one extra word cost time and energy most people will like to avoid. It is all the more the business correspondence. It means that all redundancy, be it a quotation illustration, an elaboration, in short, padding of any kind, must be avoided at all costs.
Avoidance of redundant helps achieve accuracy of statement. For much unwanted language in letters is the direct result of inaccurate and inconsistent thoughts and statements. A little care, particularly habitual revision of what one has written, will go a long way towards making writing accurate.
As remarked earlier, a letter reveals its writer's personality and character. Since there is always a 'you' in every letter, it is necessary that this 'you' or the addressee be shown all the courtesy and respect that language can express. Even when a complaint is lodged or a statement or application rejected, care should be taken that it is couched in polite and civilized language. It is worth remembering that while courtesy costs nothing, there is hardly anything more abrasive than impolite language.
- Good Looks:
Finally, a letter must be a visual attraction to the reader. It can displease either through wrong spelling and punctuation or bad writing and typing. These are not mattering merely of form as even a well-thought out-letter, rich in ideas and having all the qualities of clarity, brevity, accuracy and courtesy may not only fail to make proper impact on the reader, but may even defeat its purpose by causing him unnecessary annoyance.
It is convenient to divide all letters into 10 parts:
- Sender's address
- Direction (the address of the person(s) to whom you are writing)
- Reference (not always necessary in intimate, personal letters)
- Postscript (to be as a rule avoided, unless absolutely necessary)
- The envelope.
As these are mostly (except for the body of the letter) matters of form, we will illustrate each one of them. Often there are alternative forms, but you must choose one of them and use it consistently.
The success of a business or industrial organization lies in doing its job for this purpose, gathering information and passing it on to those who need it is important. In the broader collection and transfer of information is happening all the time in every area of formal life. So scientists, working brokers, testers, journalists, and various professionals, government and private organizations are asked to write and report to their management on important topics at the institution or the person involved.
Reports can be as short as a few sentences and as long as a few large pages. Although reports can be verbal and informal, here we are concerned with written and formal reports.
Reports can be of various types such as:
While writing the following principles can be kept in mind:
- Consider your Audience:
When organizing and preparing your reports you need to know who your audience is and whether or not your content meets their interests and needs.
- Enable Your Report:
Legitimacy has to do with how easy or readable it is. As most reports in normal cases type, all meetings with good typing should be followed. If there are handwritten reports, special attention should be given to writing clearly and clearly. Any departure from the above requirement will prove displeasing to your audience.
- Make your Report readable:
Clarity, durability and systematic presentation of readable content. The concept is summarized better than the following:
The author does a lot by giving his reader a lot of information and taking away from him a little time.
In this regard the following five goals are met:
a) Use short sentences.
b) You prefer convenience to the building.
c) Choose a common name.
d) Use the economy and avoid unnecessary words.
e) Act actions as far as possible
- Avoid unnecessary Names and Texts:
Just like unwanted fat in the body, padding, prolixity and repetition violates the respect of good writing, not to mention the respect they wrote for you. So 'agree' and 'prefer' will be more acceptable than pompous 'agree with' and 'prefer'. As such, why use 'at that point in time' and at a time when we have the best and most economical holdings at that time 'and' when '. Viewed from the point of view of the report, or requested for the report, a good report will contain four important details, an analysis of the information, conclusions and recommendations. It should always be remembered that effective reporting requires special attention to the needs and expectations of the reader. It means that the author of the report has to 'snap a picture', he must think and understand himself.
A resume is a short document used to summarize the job search and qualifications of the prospective employer. The resume includes contact details for the job seeker, work experience, education, and the appropriate skills to support the job application.
Your renegotiation is a critical part of today's job application process. Writing a good resume is more important than ever now that online job posts tend to attract hundreds if not thousands of applicants. A refurbished, ready-to-start application will increase your chances of getting an interview while poorly written resumes may be lost at sea of applicants.
How to write the resume:
1. Select the resume format and the categories you need
2. Always include contact details, work experience, and education
3. Use traditional topics for high compliance
4. Apply practical skills directly to the job description
5. Replace basic tasks with impactful performance
6. Do not include an old goal statement or reference section
7. Preview and double-check what you wrote
8. Save as docx file (optional) or pdf.
If you think you are done, ask someone else to take care of you. Alternatively, take it to jobscan for a quick answer.
- Oral communication is carried out orally through direct or indirect channels. Sound is the only channel through which oral communication can take place.
- Examples of oral communication include face to face conversations, chatrooms, voice podcast, telephone conversations.
- Conversations are a tool and a vehicle for expressing ideas, feelings and experiences are very important. Conversation is also participation, cooperation and communication.
- Debate is a competitive, two-way conversation. The goal is to win an argument or to convince someone.
- Dialogue is a collaborative, two-way conversation. The role of the participants is to exchange information and build relationships with others.
- Discourse is a collaborative, harmonious conversation. The purpose is to bring information from the speaker / author to the audience / readers.
- Diatribe is a competitive and one-way conversation. The goal is to express feelings, to attack those who disagree with you, and / or to include those with the same opinion.
A group discussion is an organized way of exchanging information, views and opinions about a problem, issue or topic among the members of a group who share some common objectives.
8. Public speaking can be defined as a presentation which is given in front of a live audience. It is a performance-based art.
9. A presentation is a formal talk given on a specific set of topics to inform and educate. They may be short or long, include slides or other visual aids, and be done individually or in a group.
10. Extempore is a format of public speaking where the speaker is given a topic and he/she has to speak on that topic there and then with no pre-meditation whatsoever.
11. An elocution is a manner of delivering formal speech which focuses on the various elements of speaking such as pronunciation, articulation, vocabulary, accent, emphasis, inflections and gestures along with the subject matter of the speech.
12. Written correspondence includes any sort of trade of data in the composed structure. For instance, messages, emails, letters, reports, SMS, posts via web-based networking media, records, handbooks, banners, flyers, and so on.
13. The essay writing process consists of three stages: preparation, writing and revision.
14. Letters are generally divided into the following four categories: friendly or informal letters, business letters; invitations and responses, as well as the use of functions.
The seven C’s of communication is a list of principles that you should ensure all of your communications adhere to. Their purpose is to help ensure that the person you’re communicating with hears what you’re trying to say. The seven C’s of communication include: clear, correct, complete, concrete, concise, considered and courteous.
There are several stages to clarity.
Firstly, it’s important to be clear about the purpose of the message you’re delivering. The recipient should be made aware of why they are receiving the message and what you’re trying to achieve by delivering it. If there are multiple goals, each should be laid out separately.
Secondly, it’s essential that the content of the communication is itself clear. The use of jargon must be avoided, use simple language and simple structures and always focus on the core points of your message.
It’s essential that both the factual information and the language and grammar you use are correct. If your audience spots errors in either, they will be distracted and your credibility will be greatly reduced. This will reduce the effectiveness of your communication.
Completeness is often one of the most important of the 7 Cs of communication.
When creating a message, it’s important to give the recipient all of the information they need to follow your line of reasoning and to reach the same conclusions you have. This level of detail will be different in different situations, and you should adjust your communications accordingly.
In addition, you should make things as easy as possible for the recipient. For example, if you are issuing a “call to action”, provide explicit guidance on that action. Increasingly it’s common to include things like hyperlinks in written communications or to attach FAQs, both of which help audiences access a complete set of information while also ensuring that core communications focus on core messages.
When shaping your communication, you must ensure that you are specific and that the logic and messages that you’re using fit together, build on each other and support each other. Your arguments should be based on solid facts and opinions from credible sources and you should share irrefutable data to support your argument.
It may be important to help bring the solid nature of what you’ve created to life for your audience through examples that show the relevance of your messages for them as individuals.
When communicating messages of this nature it’s important to stick to the point and keep your messages short and simple. If a message can be given in five words, don't make it ten. Don’t repeat your messages.
The more you say, the more risk there is of confusion. Avoid that risk by focusing solely on the key points you need to deliver.
Not everyone knows how to use the 7 Cs of communication. You can increase the effectiveness of your communications by being polite and showing your audience that you respect them. Your messages should be friendly, professional, considerate, respectful, open and honest.
To help ensure you are courteous, you should always use some empathy and consider your messages from the point of view of the audience.
The last of the 7 Cs of communication is coherence. If your communications are not coherent they will not be effective. To help make sure your communications are coherent you should have a logical flow and your style, tone and language should be consistent throughout.
In addition to making sure that each correspondence that is issued is coherent within itself, you should also ensure consistency of message when delivering multiple communications.
- The seven C’s of communication is a list of principles that you should ensure all of your communications adhere to. They are clear, correct, complete, concrete, concise, considered and courteous.
- The recipient should be made aware of why they are receiving the message and what you’re trying to achieve by delivering it.
- It’s essential that both the factual information and the language and grammar you use are correct.
- When creating a message, it’s important to give the recipient all of the information they need to follow your line of reasoning and to reach the same conclusions you have.
- Your arguments should be based on solid facts and opinions from credible sources and you should share irrefutable data to support your argument.
- The more you say, the more risk there is of confusion. Avoid that risk by focusing solely on the key points you need to deliver.
- You can increase the effectiveness of your communications by being polite and showing your audience that you respect them.
- To help make sure your communications are coherent you should have a logical flow and your style, tone and language should be consistent throughout.
Communication is only complete if the message received by the recipient is interpreted in the same way as was intended by the sender. But due to the presence of a wide number of factors the message may be destroyed. These factors act as barriers to effective communication. It is essential to locate and eradicate these factors in order to allow free flowing communication.
Some of the barriers that block communication are listed below:
- Linguistic/semantic Barriers– The linguistic ability of both the sender and receiver define their ability to effectively communicate. Especially when technical communication is concerned, the free flow of communication requires both parties to be sufficiently acquainted with the information that is being exchanged. For example, if two people from different backgrounds converse with the technical terminology of their own fields they are bound to misunderstand each other.
Semantic barriers are some of the most critical obstacles that limit effective communication. Language is that the most ordinarily employed tool of communication. The fact that every major region has its own language also contributes to being a barrier in effective communication. Sometimes even a thick dialect may render communication ineffective.
Even within the same workplace, different employees will have different linguistic skills. As a result, the communication channels that span across the organization would be suffering from this.
2. Psychological Barriers- The psychological state of the receiver plays a significant role when processing information. Factors such as personal issues, worries and stress might affect the receiver’s ability to decode information as they might be preoccupied with their own concerns.
Anger on the sender’s end is also an example of a psychological barrier, while angry one tends to convey thoughts one doesn’t mean only to regret later. Shyness, anxiety and depression may also act as barriers.
3. Interpersonal Barriers- There are six ways in which people can distance themselves from one another:
- Withdrawal - is an absence of interpersonal contact.
- Pastimes - Pastimes fill up time with others in social but superficial activities.
- Working - Work activities follow the rules and procedures of contact but no more than that.
- Games - Games are subtle, manipulative interactions which are about winning and losing. They include "rackets" and "stamps".
- Closeness - The purpose of interpersonal contact is closeness. Good interpersonal contact promotes honesty and acceptance.
4. Physical Barriers- Physical barriers such as noise, physical distance between the speaker and receiver, conditions of the topography, poor lighting, speech impediment, hearing disability also affect effective communication. They also include hinderances such as closed doors, faulty equipment used for communication, closed cabins, etc. Sometimes in a large office, the physical separation between various employees combined with faulty equipment may lead to severe barriers to effective communication.
5. Perceptual Barriers- The difference in how individuals perceive things also play a role in communication. People often find themselves unable to accept messages that go against their upbringing and values. Here even though the communication is effective, the feedback suffers. A similar situation might be perceived differently by different individuals and therefore might create disagreement.
6. Socio/Cultural Barriers- Different cultures possess different norms of social interactions and communication. Something deemed appropriate in one culture might not be the same in another. Body language and gestures play a vital role in non-verbal communication which might suffer due to cultural differences.
As the world is getting more and more globalized, multinational companies with large offices may have people from several parts of the world. Different cultures have a special meaning for several basic values of society. Dressing, religions or lack of them, food, drinks, pets, are different for each individual in society and hence the general behaviour will change drastically from one culture to another.
Hence, it's a must that we must take these different cultures into consideration while communicating. This is often referred to as being culturally appropriate. In many multinational companies, special courses are offered at the orientation stages that permit people to understand other cultures and the way to be courteous and tolerant towards these cultures.
7. Inattention- One of the most common barriers towards effective communication is inattention, the receiver might simply be uninterested or might be daydreaming while the message is being conveyed to him.
8. Organizational Barriers- Organisational policies should be clear to avoid misinterpretations. Expressly stated policies are better understood than implicit policies. As implicit policies are subject to interpretation of behaviour of top managers, people may be subjective in interpretation. Different people can draw different meaning of behavioural gestures which obstructs the effective flow of communication. Strict rules and regulations make observance to these rules also rigid. People lose creativity in transmitting messages. Choice of channels, medium and dimension of communication can be against the willingness of people and, thus, stand in the way of effective communication. Too many levels in the organisational hierarchy can delay processing of information. Information can be filtered, particularly in case of upward communication as negative information is generally not transmitted.
Ways to Overcome Communication Barriers
These barriers can be easily avoided with a little effort and dedication. Below are some methods useful for avoiding these communication barriers:
- Clarity of words and purpose - Clarity is one of the most essential requirements of communication. While writing, it is necessary to write in good handwriting with proper grammar and sentence formation. While speaking one should use proper vocabulary and speak each word clearly and carefully along with proper inflections.
2. Active Listening- One should listen carefully what the speaker is saying in order to understand properly and provide feedback. One should be attentive while listening, ask open ended questions and should be able to summarize the information provided by the speaker.
3. Focus should be the other - While conversing one should maintain eye contact with the speaker as this shows the speaker that the message is being received by the listener. While speaking the focus should always be on the receiver.
4. Non-Verbal Communication- One’s body language often speaks as loud as his words. While communication one should show one’s reactions and interests through their body language.
5. Avoid Interruptions- It is essential to let the speaker finish talking before conveying one’s own thoughts. Interrupting is not only rude but also can be disadvantageous as one may not totally grasp the meaning of the speaker. If an interruption is absolutely necessary, one must use polite words like “pardon me” or “excuse me” instead of cutting the speaker in the middle of their thought process.
6. Controlling Emotions and Thinking before Speaking- It is said one must think twice before they speak. One must always consider the opinions and feelings of others before speaking their mind. One must also consider one’s own emotions and not speak out of anger or frustration. The process of communication should be logical rather than emotional.
7. The Message- The message one wishes to convey must always be clear and concise, there should be no doubts in one’s mind while speaking. The central idea of the message should always be conveyed completely and indubitably.
8. Eliminating Noise- One must eliminate all the outside forces that might disturb the conversation in order to maintain the flow of the communication process.
9. Feedback- One must pay attention to what the other person is saying and try to understand it as closely as possible to his intended meaning. This will allow him to provide proper responses.
- Semantic barriers are some of the most critical obstacles that limit effective communication. When technical communication is concerned, the free flow of communication requires both parties to be sufficiently acquainted with the information that is being exchanged.
- Factors such as personal issues, worries and stress might affect the receiver’s ability to decode information as they might be preoccupied with their own concerns.
- Interpersonal berries include: Withdrawal, pastimes, working, games, closeness.
- Physical barriers such as noise, physical distance between the speaker and receiver, conditions of the topography, poor lighting, speech impediment, hearing disability affect effective communication.
- Cultural barriers include barriers due to cultural differences of eating habits, speaking, manners and etiquettes etc.
- Choice of channels, medium and dimension of communication can be against the willingness of people and, thus, stand in the way of effective communication.
- Ways to overcome communication barriers include: Clarity of words and purpose, active listening, focus on the speaker, non-verbal communication, avoiding interrupting the speaker, controlling emotions, thinking before speaking, focusing on the message, eliminating noise and providing feedback.
The term “Technical Communication” may be broadly defined as the use of language to convey thoughts dealing with a specific field or Industry. Technical communication can be considered to be “transactional” in nature, it carries a specific purpose to be carried out between the sender and receiver, a transaction of information that may be useful for practical purposes. Effective in communication allows one to collect, organize, convey and instruct new thoughts and ideas. Technical communication is generally tailor made towards the audience or the individual to whom the information is to be conveyed. Communication can either be verbal or non-verbal, oral or written.
Technical Communication comes in many different forms that include not just oral and written methods but also various types of correspondence based on technology, dependent upon the audience, situation and purpose.
One must be thoroughly familiar with all styles of correspondence in order to facilitate effective communication. The channel of communication intrinsically depends upon the purpose and the central idea of the message to be conveyed. For example, it is feasible to acquire information or provide information using a formal phone call or an email whereas while conveying bad news to a particular individual a face-to-face conversation is considered rather apt.
Apart from oral and written methods, being acquainted with technology is extremely essential when it comes to technical communication.
Technical communication is not just limited to the marketing that an organization puts intent on gain clients or customers. The scope of technical communication extends to internal communications, public relations, social media, customer communications and investor relations along with non-profit organizations, the government and even education. When combined, these elements of business communication strengthen an organization's brand and presence within the marketplace.
As far as technical communication is concerned, how you communicate together with your employees internally is an essential factor because it defines the image of the organization in the eyes of the general public. That’s why a robust business communication plan should encompass the following elements:
- Employee communications, including policies and procedures, events, team-building activities and newsletters.
- Public relations, like press releases, sponsorships, community outreach and crisis management. Public relations include tasks such as community relations and marketing communications dealing with an organization's reputation and service to clients.
- Internet marketing, including social media, company websites, online advertising and apps.
- Customer communications, which includes sales, after sales services and marketing on to potential clients and customers.
- Investor relations, which includes keeping shareholders and other investors regularly informed on the status and progress of the business.
- Non-profit Agencies - Options starting from membership organizations to social and cultural groups, hospitals, and health care agencies offer PR opportunities where fund raising is usually involved.
- Entertainment, Sports and Travel - This area is typically concerned with press agentry and promotion of events. Publicity is a crucial element of practitioner duties.
- Government and Military - Communication specializing in promotion of political issues (often including lobbying), information dissemination about government activities to citizens, and knowledge distribution to and about the military.
- Education - Education opportunities cover relationships with alumni, faculty and administration, students, and therefore the general public promoting the school image, recruiting students, and raising funds.
Significance of Technical Communication
The purpose of Technical communication is to make information clear and understandable in order to make business more productive and consumer goods more convenient.
Technical communication helps to advance our economy by ensuring viable research and development, safeguarding design and manufacturing, and protecting consumers through accurate and informative documents. Good Technical communication will:
- Help employers understand and complete job tasks more successfully.
- Provide backgrounds on which new ideas can be built without repetition.
- Prevent problems with the development and manufacturing of products.
- Inform consumers how to assemble, fix or use a product.
- Provide effective customer service to the consumers.
Characteristics of Technical Communication:
Below are the six main characteristics of Technical Communication:
- Addresses a Particular Demographic
Documents and presentations are always created with the receiver in mind. Technical communication is used to provide direct information regarding specific topics with no digressions. It is essential to create an audience profile before initiating conversation. Technical conversations are direct and to the point therefore, it has no place for ambiguity or obscurity.
2. Problem Solving
Technical communication is generally carried out in order to resolve an issue or problem. It only deals with information which is relevant to the problem at hand and works towards finding resolution. Analysis and synopsis are two important elements with regards to problem solving.
3. Reflects on Goals and Culture
Technical communication is done with a common goal in mind. It respects the culture of an organisation and works towards the goal with the basic principle of being culturally appropriate. Words and phrases specific to an environment are used during discussions or discourses.
4. Is a Collaborative Effort
Forms of technical communication such as documents, projects or dissertations are often a result of a team of technical communicators. Any informational document requires a number of people working on it. Even when a project is to be finished by a single person, the way they acquire technical information is always dependent on a number of sources.
5. Use of Designing Features in Written Technical Communication
Documents often use various design features such as colour, typography, spacing and indenting, etc. to make the document look more attractive and professional. Apart from that design features allow the reader to navigate the document with greater efficiency and help them understand the document more easily.
6. Use of Technology and Terminology
The terminology used during a technical conversation is of the specific field it is carried out in. Words and phrases used during technical communication process are often only understood by the people who are involved in it. Technological tools such as computers are often involved in technical communications. Presentations and graphical representation of various topics are extremely relevant to technical communication.
- The term “Technical Communication” may be broadly defined as the use of language to convey thoughts dealing with a specific field or Industry.
- Technical communication can be considered to be “transactional” in nature, it carries a specific purpose to be carried out between the sender and receiver, a transaction of information that may be useful for practical purposes.
- Technical communication covers: employee communication, public relations, internet marketing, customer communications, investor relations, non-profit agencies, entertainment, sports and travel, government and military, education etc.
- The purpose of Technical communication is to make information clear and understandable in order to make business more productive and consumer goods more convenient.
- Technical communication helps to advance our economy by ensuring viable research and development, safeguarding design and manufacturing, and protecting consumers through accurate and informative documents.
- Technical communication is generally carried out in order to resolve an issue or problem.
Nonverbal communication is the type of communication that is carried out without the use of words. Nonverbal communication is usually utilized as an aid to verbal communication. This type of communication employs gestures, body language, symbols and expressions.
Nonverbal actions often set the tone of the conversation. Nonverbal communication is useful for expressing one’s mood, opinion or reaction.
Below are some forms of non-verbal communication:
Physical nonverbal communication: This is the sum of the physically observable. For instance, hand gestures, visual communication, facial expressions, the tone of one’s voice, posture, stance, touch, gaze, and so on. Research shows that nonverbal communication constitutes about 55% of our daily communications
These are subtle signals that are picked up as a part of our biological wiring. for instance, if you rest your head on your palms, it'll mean that you simply are very disappointed or angry. Similarly, other subtle hints will convey your reactions to the person you want to communicate with and vice-versa.
Paralanguage: This type of communication is carried out by the tone of one’s voice. It almost 38% of all the communication that we do every day. Along with the tone of voice, the style of speaking, voice quality, stress, emotions, or intonation all serve the purpose of expressing intent and reaction. All of these aspects are not verbal.
Visual Communication: This type of communication is carried out with the help of drawings, illustrations, placards, presentations and symbols.
Aesthetic Communication: An important means of communication, however underrated, is art. Some of the strongest messages and inexpressible feelings and emotions have been conveyed through art throughout history. Art as an effective form of nonverbal communication, has played an important role in influencing people even before documented history.
Appearance: First impressions formed by apparel, grooming, politeness, the colours one wears, all are essential mediums of communication.
Following are the various appropriate uses of Non-verbal Communication:
1. Replacing speech
Non-verbal communication is an effective way of communicating without speaking in both formal and informal settings. Not only can one express a lot without words through their expressions and gestures but one can also use non-verbal signs to supplement speaking.
Below are some ways by which non-verbal communication can replace or supplement verbal communication:
- Using hands, legs feet or the whole body to indicate something.
- Using gestures with fingers, hands and arms to express a point.
- Tilting of head such as nodding to say yes or no
- Using expressions to express joy, sadness, approval, disapproval, frustration etc.
2. Controlling conversation
During a conversation, both parties take turns to speak to express their thoughts. Therefore, if a conversation requires one to take control such as in a debate, non-verbal communication can be used to drag the ball into one's court.
Below are some ways by which one can take control of the conversation using non-verbal communication:
- Cutting into speech to take control.
- Using voice modulation and tone to retain control.
- Pausing between sentences to add dramatic effect.
- Stopping between sentences to allow others to speak.
- Leaning forward to show interest and request others to speak.
- Looking away or leaning backwards to show disinterest or unpreparedness to listen.
3. Impression through Appearance
As Non-verbal communication goes beyond bodily actions to anything that sends subtle messages, one's attire and the way they look in general can affect the audience in many ways. Thus, one's appearance can be a useful tool to create an impact on the listener.
Below are some things which can be used to create a lasting impression:
- Appropriate attire for a formal or informal setting and proper grooming.
- Personal accessories such as watches, jewelry, etc.
- Organization of workspace such as the setup of desks, chairs and computers.
- Status symbols such as cars, houses etc.
4. Expressing emotion
While Verbal communication is useful fro expressing thoughts, Non-verbal communication is useful for expressing emotions and subtle feelings. The tone of one's voice, their expressions and their body language can tell much more about a person than words can. In particular, if one feels that he is unable to express emotions verbally, their words and body language can easily be in contradiction, sending messages that may be interpreted as stress or deceit.
Below are some fundamental strategies for using Non-verbal communication:
- Walk with confidence. Have good posture. Stand tall. Walk confidently to the presentation area.
2. Engage in direct eye contact. Look into the eyes of your audience. Don’t look at the walls, floor or ceiling.
3. Use hand gestures to reinforce your message. This is an important one. When using hand gestures, make sure they look natural. Over-rehearsing gestures makes the speaker look like a mechanical robot to the audience. Gestures, when they come naturally, are interpreted as genuine and honest by the audience. With that said, be careful of a few things: Don’t over-exaggerate. Don’t use repeated gestures because they can distract the audience from your message. An example: If you have a tendency to scratch your head when you are thinking and talking, then you don’t want to continue scratching and scratching as sooner or later the audience will start paying more attention to that gesture and forget about what you are saying.
4. Move a little. Movement is good for presenters. Too much movement is distracting. If you walk from the front of the room to the back of the room, that’s fine. Do not move around the entire length of the room or stage as the audience will get tired of adjusting their necks and chairs to your movement. A little movement is fine. Avoid repetitive movement such as pacing back and forth as it will have an almost hypnotic effect on you audience. Watching you walk back and forth again and again in the same motion will most likely make the audience uninterested in your non-verbal cues. Robotic pacing is a death knell to any presenter.
5. Express yourself! There are more than 100 muscles in the face which must be used to express all kinds of emotions. If you are sharing declining numbers, show it. If you are delighted that you exceeded year-end quotas, show it. If you are sharing a melancholic anecdote, show it. Your facial expressions reinforce your message. Just make sure that they are not in conflict with your message. While saying introductory lines such as, “I’m delighted to be here today to deliver this presentation” you should smile and show the audience that you are an emotional being like them, this will also help you relate to the audience and make them feel more open which will in turn allow them to listen to you better.
6. Enhance your image. Your appearance is the first thing people notice when you enter a room. It speaks volumes about who you are as a person and about your level of professionalism. Take a long, hard look at your professional attire. Look at the colours you wear. You want to look current, not dated. A good grooming session will also help you look more prepared and enthusiastic.
7. Pause and be silent. Well timed pauses, or silence while you are speaking is one of the most powerful nonverbal strategies that you can use while presenting. There will be certain points within the presentation that you would like to emphasize, using pauses before these points and silence after is a good technique to let them echo in the minds of the audience. Let silence help you. You can either say “Our year-end sales were up 25%” or you can say “Our year-end sales were up (pause) twenty (pause) five (pause) percent.” This latter, obviously, seems much more powerful.
- Verbal communication is the type of communication that includes the utilization of language and words to pass on the intended message.
- Verbal communication can be Interpersonal, in a group and/or public.
- Nonverbal communication is the type of communication that is carried out that employs gestures, body language, symbols and expressions for communicating.
- Non-verbal communication includes the use of paralanguage, sign language, appearance, signs, symbols and presentations
- Characteristics of verbal communication: Productivity, Displacement, Diminishing, Arbitrariness, Cultural Transmission
- Characteristics of non-verbal communication include: Replacing speech, controlling conversation, impressing through appearance and expressing emotion.
1. ‘Technical Communication: Principles and practice’, Meenakshi Raman and Sangeeta Sharma (Oxford)
2. ‘Effective Business Communication’, Krizan and merrier (Cengage learning)
3. ‘Communication Skill, Sanjay Kumar and pushlata, OUP2011
4. “Practical English Usage Michael Swan OUP, 1995.
5. “Exercises in spoken English Parts I-III CIEFL, Hyderabad, Oxford University Press
6. On writing well, William Zinsser, Harper Resource Book 2001.
7. Remedial English Grammar, F.T. Wood, Macmillan2007.