Vocabulary Building and Comprehension
English speakers today--or even people trying to find out English--can enjoy understanding a number of the derivatives, or parts of a word taken from other languages, like Latin and Greek. Since there are over 1,000,000 words within the English, it's impossible to memorize all of them. However, understanding some basic components of words and customary ones that are derivatives of the classical languages can assist you determine their meaning.
In some ways, a word is simply sort of a cake, made from different ingredients. You'll find out what a word means by watching its three parts. The root, or the foremost basic form of the word that also has meaning, is what makes up the bottom of the word. Frequently something is going to be attached the start of a word to feature meaning, which is named a prefix. Suffixes are almost like prefixes, but instead come at the top of the word. For instance, if you study the word ''microbiology,'' you'll see it's composed of those three parts, all of Greek origin: a prefix, ''micro-'' (meaning ''small''); a root, ''bio'' (meaning ''life''); and a suffix, ''logy'' (meaning ''study of''). Understanding these parts can assist you determine that microbiology is that the ''study of small life forms.''
Many English words and word parts are often traced back to Latin and Greek. The subsequent table lists some common Latin roots.
Latin root Basic meaning Example words:
Contradict, dictate, diction, edict, predict
To lead, bring, take
Deduce, produce, reduce
Digress, progress, transgress
Eject, inject, interject, project, reject, subject
Compel, dispel, impel, repel
Append, depend, impend, pendant, pendulum
Comport, deport, export, import, report, support
Describe, description, prescribe, prescription, subscribe, subscription, transcribe, transcription
To pull, drag, draw
Attract, contract, detract, extract, protract, retract, traction
Convert, divert, invert, revert
From the instance words within the above table, it's easy to ascertain how roots combine with prefixes to make new words. For instance, the basis -tract-, meaning “to pull,” can combine with variety of prefixes, including de- and re-. Detract means literally “to pull away” (de-, “away, off”) and retract means literally “to pull back” (re-, “again, back”). The subsequent table gives an inventory of Latin prefixes and their basic meanings.
Co-author, coedit, coheir
Away, off; generally, indicates reversal or removal in English
Deactivate, debone, defrost, decompress, deplane
Not, not any
Disbelief, discomfort, discredit, disrepair, disrespect
International, interfaith, intertwine, intercellular, interject
Nonessential, non-metallic, non-resident, nonviolence, non-skid, nonstop
Postdate, post-war, postnasal, postnatal
Preconceive, pre-exist, premeditate, predispose, prepossess, prepay
Again; back, backward
Rearrange, rebuild, recall, remake, rerun, rewrite
Submarine, subsoil, subway, subhuman, substandard
Across, beyond, through
Words and word roots may also combine with suffixes. Here are examples/ instances of some important English suffixes that come from Latin:
Forms adjectives and means “capable or worthy of”
Forms nouns from verbs
Creation, civilization, automation, speculation, information
Forms verbs and means “to make or cause to become”
Purify, acidify, humidify
Forms nouns from verbs
Entertainment, amazement, statement, banishment
Forms nouns from adjectives
Subtlety, certainty, cruelty, frailty, loyalty, royalty; eccentricity, electricity, peculiarity, similarity, technicality
Greek Latin Derivatives: Prefix and Suffix Starter List:
Most of these combining/ interactive forms can be used as either prefixes or suffixes. Examples are presented to illustrate current usage.
Off, from, down, away
Not, without, less
a ray, beam, spoke
To, attached to,
Both, about, around
Away, through, again
a vessel, closed container
Referring to man
Against, away, opposite
Ap-, aph-, apo-
From, off, separate
Bag, sack, bladder
Two, twice, double
Related to life
An embryonic layer or cell
Green, containing chloride
Around, near, about
Hollow cavity, belly
Col-, com-, con-
Dark blue, blue-green
Cell, a hollow vessel
Undoing, removal of, from
Double, twice, two
a running, racing
Out, out of
Upon, above, top
Proper, true, good
Outside of, beyond
Seaweed, algae, lichen
Pertaining to plants
Different, other, unlike
Same, similar, like
Pertaining to water
Above, more, over
Below, less, under
Referring to fish
Large, big, long
Middle, in between
Later, following, changed in position or form
a thousandth part
Consisting of many units
Mouse, as one running
Few, small, less
Pertaining to an egg
Referring to the eye
Behind, backwards, back
Referring to the ear
Beside, near, beyond
Bearing, carrying, support
Loving, attracted to
Pertaining to light
Tribe, race, related group
Pertaining to plants
Before, on behalf of
Ray, spoke of wheel
Pertaining to roots
a rose, red
Rotten, putrid, dead
Bunch of grapes
Twisted, string of
Below, under, smaller
To make order, arrangement
Across, through, over
Consisting of one
In place of
To join together
Mode of living, way of life
Killer, a killing
Round, seed, kernel
-elle, -ule, -la, -le, -let, -ole
Small, diminutive endings
Bearer, producer, carry
Marriage, sexual fusion
Origin, development of
Compound formed by union of water with other substance
Act, practice or result of
a division or part
Inflammation or infection
To yoke, join together
Science or study of
Loosening, separation, splitting into smaller units
a part, piece
Derived from a fungus
Systematized knowledge of
Abnormal condition, disease
a stage or condition
Bearing, carrying, supporting
Organized particle, granule
a stationary position
Arrangement, in order
- There are over 1,000,000 words within the English language that have been derived from other languages such as Greek and Latin.
- A word is made up of three main parts – the root, the prefix and the suffix.
- The prefix makes up the first few letters of the word that carries a meaning in itself.
- The suffix makes up the last few letters of the word that carry a certain meaning.
- The root is the central word around which prefix and suffix are adjoined.
Synonyms are words that carry a similar or same meaning to another word. Sometimes even though the synonym of a word has an identical meaning the word and the synonym may not be interchangeable. For example, "blow up" and "explode" have the same meaning, but "blow up" is informal (used more in speech) and "explode" is more formal (used more in writing and careful speech). Synonyms also provide variety to speech and writing.
Many words in the English language contain more than one synonym. Some examples of Synonyms:
Shallow - superficial
Stop – cease
Spontaneous - capricious
Gloomy – sad - unhappy
House - home - abode
Evil - bad - wicked
Garbage - trash - junk - waste
Present – gift – reward – award
Sniff – smell – inhale
Little – small – tiny
Under – below – beneath
Short list of synonyms in English, listed by the part of speech:
- Belly / stomach
- Children / kids
- Disaster / catastrophe
- Earth / soil
- Father / dad
- Happiness / joy
- Instinct / intuition/ understanding
- Mother / mom
- Present / gift
- Sunrise / dawn
- Answer / reply
- Beat / defeat
- Behave / act
- Begin / start
- Close / shut/ turn on/turn off
- Leave / exit
- Provide / supply/ distribution
- Select / choose
- Shout / yell
- Speak / talk
- Big / large
- Complete / total/number
- Correct / right
- Crazy / mad
- Foolish / silly /fool/ stupid
- Happy / glad
- Hard / difficult
- Ill / sick
- Last / final
- Near / close
- Sad / unhappy
- Stable / steady/ strong
- Abroad / overseas
- Almost / nearly/ about / approx.
- Bad / poorly
- Fast / quickly
- Intentionally / purposefully
- Out / outside
- Rarely / seldom/ not common
- Sometimes / occasionally/ periodically
- Surely / for sure/ definitely
- Very / highly / extremely/too much
- Above / over/ more
- About / regarding / concerning
- Against / versus
- Below / beneath / under
- By / via
- Despite / in spite of
- In / into/ to
- Off / away
- Until / till
- With / including
- And / plus
- Because / since
- But / yet/for now
- If / provided
- Once / as soon as possible/ and
- Hello / hi
- Gee / gosh
- Goodness / goodness me / my goodness
- No / nope
- Oh Lord / oh good Lord
- Thanks / thank you
- Whoopee / yahoo / hooray
- Yes / yeah
- Synonyms are words that carry a similar or same meaning to another word.
- It is often seen that even if the synonym of a word has an identical meaning the word and the synonym may not be interchangeable.
- Many words in the English language contain more than one synonym.
Antonyms are words that carry the opposite meaning to another word. They can be used to show contrast between two things or emphasize a point. Antonyms can be totally different words from their counterparts or can also be formed by adding prefixes to some words.
Below are some examples of antonyms that are commonly used in the English language:
Antonyms formed by changing entire words
Love – hate
Beginning – ending
Ugly – beautiful
Wild – tame
Extrovert – introvert
Antonyms formed by adding prefix –un
Acceptable - unacceptable
Able - unable
Do - undo
Certain – uncertain
Seen – Unseen
Antonyms formed by adding the prefix –in
Decent – indecent
Tolerant – intolerant
Human – inhuman
Curable – incurable
Expressible – inexpressible
Antonyms formed by adding the prefix –non
Sense – nonsense
Essential – nonessential
Flammable – non-flammable
Renewable – non-renewable
Entity – nonentity
Other prefixes used to form antonyms of words are –anti (Thesis - Antithesis), -ill (Literate – Illiterate), -mis (Informed – Misinformed), -dis (Assemble – Disassemble) etc.
Short list of antonyms in English, listed by the part of speech:
- Day / night
- East / west
- The enemy / friend
- Failure / success
- Guest / host
- Health / disease
- Question / answer
- Speaker / listener
- Summer / winter
- Top / bottom/ up / down
- Agree / disagree/accept
- Arrive / leave/ come / go
- Begin / end/ start
- Fall asleep / wakefulness/sleep
- Find / lose/ gain
- Lend / borrowing
- Love / hate
- Open / close/turn on /turn off
- Remember / forget
- Start / stop
- Is asleep / awake
- Beautiful / ugly /good/ bad
- Big / small
- Black / white
- Cheap / expensive
- Dead / alive
- It is dry / wet
- Easy / difficult
- Full / empty
- Good / bad
- Hot / cold
- Intelligent / stupid/you are smart
- Sad / happy/ exciting
- Sick / living healthy
- Thin / fat
- Always / never
- With anger / happily/ excitement
- Fast / slowly
- Here / there
- Inside / outside/ indoors/ outdoors
- Likely / unlikely/possible/ impossible
- Near / far
- Partly / fully
- Seemingly / actually/ visually
- Yesterday / tomorrow
- Above / below
- Against / for / because
- Before / after
- In / out/ indoors/ outdoors
- Like / unlike/ love / contrast
- On / off
- Plus / minus
- To / from
- Towards / away/remote
- With / without
- And / or
- Therefore / nevertheless /or so
- Bravo / boo
- Hello / goodbye
- Holy cow / duh
- Phew / oops
- Thanks / no thanks
- Yes / no
- Yippee / oh my/ oh
- Antonyms are words that carry the opposite meaning to another word.
- Antonyms are useful showing contrast between two things or emphasizing a point.
- Antonyms can be totally different words from their counterparts or can also be formed by adding prefixes to some words.
Reading is the cognitive process of decoding symbols to derive meaning from them. It is the ability to understand text, decode its meaning and compare with what the reader already knows.
Knowledge of grammar and vocabulary are very essential to be a good reader. Attention span, the ability to understand the meaning of a word from context, the ability to co-relate thoughts and ideas, the ability to follow the flow of words, and the ability to identify various literary devices are the fundamental skills required for efficient reading.
An efficient reader is like a bus driver who knows when to go slow, when to accelerate speed, how to negotiate hair-pin bends on ghat roads etc. An efficient reader knows there are different levels of comprehension too as these are different reading materials. To become an efficient reader, one should be able to employ different study techniques. Reading is an act of communication between writer and reader. It is an act in which the reader grasps the information the writer passes on to him.
Comprehension is the correct association of meanings with word symbols. It is the selection of the correct meaning suggested by the text It is a thinking process. It is thinking through reading. Students should lead and get complete meaning. There are two situations that arise while reading a passage. The pupils may find a reading comprehension passage difficult for them. The teacher should know about the difficulties beforehand and prevent their occurrence.
Some common difficulties are:
- Students are not able to concentrate on what they read.
- They are not able to recognize words. Noisy surroundings, inadequate lighting and uncomfortable seating arrangements.
- Unfamiliarity of the subject matter (eg) a child from a city may not understand a passage on farming and a village child about road signal systems.
- In effective questioning and answering techniques.
- Lack of appropriate guidance by the teacher Steps for the comprehension skills. These are various steps followed for the construction of comprehension.
Features of Reading Comprehension
Reading for the main idea:
One should develop skills to identify the main idea or the central idea in what they read. This skill is necessary to get the main idea, identify the theme and get the implied meanings of the paragraph.
Activities to identify the main idea:
- Underlining key words.
- Selecting the topic sentence.
- Writing the title.
- Turning the sub heads or subtitles into a question (The answer to the question may give the main idea of the paragraph)
- Locating the function words that tie the sentence together. e.g then, therefore, but, etc.
Reading for details:
Along with reading for and stating the main idea the one must learn to read for details.
Below are some activities which facilitate reading for details:
- Look at a picture and then describe what they see at the picture.
- Note the details in a paragraph after stating the main idea.
- Identify irrelevant sentences.
- Analyse the paragraph to make a formal outline.
- Carryout simple directions on how to do something.
- Respond to directions.
- Elicit answers concerning the details, develop chart, diagram or map of the sequence of events.
Reading for organization:
Good readers will understand the organisation of what is being read. They arrange the ideas in logical order. The key helps to recall the information is organization. Reading the content areas depends upon proficiency in organisation skills. A Good reader knows how paragraphs are organized.
Activities that help one learn in a logical order what they are reading:
- Organizing information about a given subject (eg) characteristics of animals)
- Grouping a series of details about a main idea.
- Developing an outline for a story with heading and subheadings.
- Arranging records, directions or ideas in sequential orders.
- Arranging various bits of information about a selected topic and grouping them into an information story.
Reading for summarising and outline:
Summaries help to pressure the essential facts and ideas in capsule form. They retain important information. So one should develop summarizing skill. Outlining is another way of organisation. It is closely related to summarising activities to develop summarizing skills. Summarise a message to be sent as a telegram. Selecting the main idea from the choices you give them. Do exercise for writing an outline. Read a small poem and select the best summary from the choices you give them.
Barriers to Reading
Some of the barriers to effective reading are as follows-
- Lack of grammatical and linguistic competence: Many people cannot read effectively because they fail to decrypt grammatical and lexical units of language in the text. They lack the ability to differentiate and recognize the words, sentences, expressions, used in the text. It hampers the process of reading. The reader may stop reading further if he fails to understand the text grammatically.
2. Lack of motivation: Reading for information and knowledge requires motivation and discipline. Many people think reading as boring and time-consuming task. Lack of proper motivation and goal may create barrier to reading.
3. Lack of concentration: Many a times a reader finds himself reading a passage or a page and later realizing that he had not understood the meaning of it at all. This happens due to a lack of concentration while reading. One of the main reasons for this is that the reader might be lost in his thoughts while he is reading. Reading is psycho-linguistic process and therefore requires careful attention of the reader.
4. Proper light and ventilation: A reader has to struggle a lot to read in dim light or dark rooms. If proper ventilation is not there in the reading room, reader may feel suffocated or tired.
5. Subject of interest: People often prefer reading texts that they are interested in. If one is reading a topic which is not according to his preferences, he may find himself losing interest gradually.
6. Articulating the words and sentences loudly: Many readers have habit to articulate loudly or murmur the words in the text. They buzz each word which creates a barrier to speed reading. Putting finger, pen or any object on the words and sentences while reading: Many people put their finger or pen on the text while reading. They move the finger or object from word to word which lowers down the process of reading.
7. Narrow eye span: Readers often read the text one word at a time with independent eye shift between each and every word. They have narrow eye span. It not only decreases the speed of reading but also affects the comprehension. Shorter the eye span, slower the speed and comprehension. Readers require proper training and techniques to expand their eye span.
Strategies for Reading
Below are some fundamental reading strategies:
- Previewing: Previewing refers to take a quick glance at a text before actually reading it. It enables readers to understand the organizational structure of a text. Previewing includes the process of skimming through the text and looking at the headings, table of contents (if any) and typographical cues to get the general idea of what the text is about.
2. Contextualizing: Contextualizing refers to the process of placing the text in its appropriate historical, biographical and cultural background. When one reads a text, they often tend to look at it through the lenses of one's won background, leading to a misjudged or biased reading of the text. Contextualizing helps one eradicate this problem by understanding the scenario and purpose for which the text was written.
3. Questioning: Asking questions while reading a text helps one remember and understand what they have read up to that moment. Questions should be asked after the end of each paragraph and they should deal with the general gist of that paragraph and not with little details contained inside it.
4. Reflecting: While reading, one's personal beliefs or opinions may be challenged by the text. Here it is important to reflect on one's unconscionably held beliefs and values and how the text affects them. As one is reading the text for the first time, an X should be marked in the margin at each point where they feel a personal challenge to their attitudes, beliefs, or status. A brief note should be made in the margin about what one feels or about what in the text created the challenge. After marking, the text should be read again to find out any patterns one has regarding personal beliefs.
5. Outlining and summarizing: Summarizing a text is a great way to ascertain if one has grasped the intended meaning of the text. While outlining deals with the general overview of the text, summarizing is the process of writing down what one has understood about the central idea of the text in their own words thereby forming a new text in itself. Although summarizing begins with outlining, it always ends with creating its own independent text. Outlining focuses on a close analysis of each paragraph, however, summarizing requires creative synthesis. Outlining and summarizing shows how reading critically can lead to deeper understanding of any text.
6. Evaluating an argument: Evaluating involves the process of testing the logic of a text, its credibility and emotional impact. Writers make assumptions which they want the readers to accept as true, although a critical reader must always evaluate and question what he reads.
One should not accept the details within a text as they are presented before him, he should always be prepared to question and assess the text at every step. This will help the reader to grasp any hidden meanings within the text.
7. Comparing and contrasting related readings: Comparing the text one reads with other texts helps the reader to get a better understanding of the text. Sometimes authors refer to similar incidents but with different perspectives. Comparing various texts helps the reader shine new light on a particular subject letting him explore it more deeply. This might also lead to a change in the readers opinions regarding the topic.
Improving Reading Comprehension Skills
Reading comprehension is a skill, and like other skills it can be improved over time. With reading comprehension, practice is the mantra, the more you read the better you'll be at understanding a text. Below are the seven main strategies which will help you hone your comprehension skills:
- Improve your vocabulary
- Come up with questions about the text you are reading
- Use context clues
- Look for the main idea
- Write a summary of what you read
- Break up the reading into smaller sections
- Pace yourself
1. Improve your vocabulary
The basic unit of a sentence is a word. Therefore, it is necessary to first understand the meaning of words in order to understand the meaning of sentences and ultimately the subtle meanings within the text. To improve your vocabulary, you can:
- Take an online vocabulary quiz to assess your current level of vocabulary understanding
- Use flashcards to quiz yourself on words you don’t know once or twice a week
- Make a point to use newly learned words in verbal and written communication
- Read as much as possible to improve your ability to guess what a word means in a certain context
- Make a list of unfamiliar words as you read and look them up in the dictionary
2. Come up with questions about the text you are reading
If you ask yourself questions while reading a text, it will help you get more invested and allow you to get a deeper understanding of the text. It will also allow you to explore themes, motifs and other components of text that you otherwise wouldn’t inquire about. The following are examples of questions you could pose as you read:
- Why was that location chosen to start the book by the author?
- What kind of relationships do characters share with each other?
- What do we know about the main character up to this point in the book?
- What are the themes consistently recurring throughout the book? What do they mean?
The more specific your questions, the more likely you will gain further insight into the text and its meaning.
3. Use context clues
Using context clues is a great way to understand what you are reading even if you don’t know all the vocabulary being used. Context clues can be found in the words and sentences surrounding the word that you aren’t familiar with. To use context clues, you can focus on the key phrases or ideas in a sentence and deduce the main idea of a sentence or paragraph based on this information. You can also look for nearby words that are synonyms or antonyms of the word you don’t know.
4. Look for the main idea
Identifying the main idea of a paragraph or article can help you determine the importance of the article. Understanding why the author has written what he has written will help you develop a deeper understanding of the text. While reading, pause after every paragraph and try to decipher the central idea behind the paragraph. Then, try to use your own words and describe the paragraph for further understanding.
5. Write a summary of what you read
Summarisation is a great way to increase your knowledge of what you have read. Summarizing requires you to decide what is important in the text and then put it in your own words. Summarizing allows you to determine if you truly understand what you have read and better remember what you have read in the long term
6. Break up the reading into smaller sections
Breaking up a text into small sections is a great way of understanding the text more easily if the text is complicated. For example, you could read two paragraphs at a time and then pause to quickly summarize what you just read in your mind. Breaking up what you are reading can help you feel less overwhelmed and give you a better chance of truly comprehending the information in the text.
7. Pace yourself
Set realistic goals for yourself while reading by pacing yourself and allowing yourself some room to breathe. Literary texts require a deep understanding of the subject matter and pacing will be especially helpful for understanding literary texts. Set a goal for yourself that you know you can meet each day. For example, instead of trying to read a full hefty book in two days, try reading 4 chapters in one day. This allows you to reach your goals and also provides adequate time for you to process what you are reading between each session.
Tips to make the most of your reading comprehension practice
Reading is a fundamental part everyday life. These tips can help you make the most of your time when practicing your reading skills.
- Eliminate distractions: When you are distracted, your ability to comprehend what you are reading is negatively impacted. When reading—even if it’s a simple email—the focus should be solely on the text as concentration is an essential element of the cognitive process. This will help you learn to hold your attention on what you read and enable you to know whether you understand what you are reading.
b. Read a book below your reading level: Starting with books below your reading level will allow you to develop a baseline of your reading comprehension and build on that. Instead of starting with books that contain complicated subjects, read something that interests you, is comfortable and that you can easily comprehend. You can take online quizzes to determine your current reading level.
c. Re-read text to ensure understanding: If you finish a sentence or paragraph and realize that you don’t understand what it was trying to convey, take the time to re-read it until you do. Try to read more slowly the second time around and look up definitions for any words you don’t know the meaning of.
d. Read aloud: Reading aloud comprises of both visual and audio cognitive processes which helps you with your reading comprehension practice. It also forces you to slow down and gives you more time to process what you are reading.
Example for Reading comprehension:
Read the following comprehensions and answer the questions:
In the 16th century, an age of great marine and terrestrial searching, Ferdinand Magellan led the first journey to sail around the world. As a young Portuguese noble, he worked for the king of Portugal, but he became involved in the quagmire of political conspiracy at court and lost the king’s good deed. After he was removed from service by the king of Portugal, he started to serve the future Emperor Charles V of Spain.
A papal decree of 1493 had allocated all land in the New World west of 50 degrees W longitude to Spain and all the land east of that line to Portugal. Magellan afforded to provide evidence that the East Indies fell under Spanish power. On September 20, 1519, Magellan set sail from Spain with five ships. More than a year later, one of these ships was searching the landscape of South America looking for a water route across the continent. This ship sank, but the outstanding four ships searched along the southern peninsula of South America. Lastly they found the passage they wanted near 50 degrees S latitude. Magellan called this passage the Strait of All Saints, but today it is recognized as the Strait of Magellan.
One ship abandoned while in this passage and came back to Spain, so fewer sailors were advantaged to look at that first panorama of the Pacific Ocean. Those who stayed back crossed the meridian now identified as the International Date Line in the early spring of 1521 after 98 days on the Pacific Ocean. During those long days at sea, many of Magellan’s men died of hunger and disease.
Later, Magellan became worried in an insular disagreement in the Philippines and was murdered in a tribal battle. Only one ship and 17 sailors under the authority of the Basque navigator Elcano survived to finish the westward voyage to Spain and thus show once and for all that the world is round, with no cliff at the border.
1. The 16th century was an age of large ______ exploration.
- Common man
- None of the above
2. Magellan lost the favour of the king of Portugal when he became involved in a political ________.
- None of the above
3. The Pope separated New World lands between Spain and Portugal along with their location on one side or the other of an made-up physical line 50 degrees west of Greenwich that extends in a _________ direction.
- North and south
- South east
- North and west
4. One of Magellan’s ships searched the _________ of South America for a passage across the continent.
- Mountain range
- Physical features
- None of the above
5. Four of the ships sought after a passageway along a southern ______.
- Body of land with water on three sides
- Answer not available
6. The passage was found near 50 degrees of ________.
- The equator
7. In the spring of 1521, the ships crossed the _______ now called the International Date Line.
- Imaginary circle passing through the poles
- Imaginary line parallel to the equator
- Land mass
- Answer not available
- Reading is the cognitive process of decoding symbols to derive meaning from them as well as the ability to understand text, decode its meaning and compare with what the reader already knows.
2. Knowledge of grammar and vocabulary are very essential to be a good reader.
3. Reading is an act of communication between writer and reader. It is an act in which the reader grasps the information the writer passes on to him.
4. One should develop skills to identify the main idea or the central idea in what they read. This skill is necessary to get the main idea, identify the theme and get the implied meanings of the paragraph.
5. Good readers will understand the organisation of what is being read. They arrange the ideas in logical order. The key helps to recall the information is organization.
6. Many people cannot read effectively because they fail to decrypt grammatical and lexical units of language in the text.
7. Many a times a reader finds himself reading a passage or a page and later realizing that he had not understood the meaning of it at all. This happens due to a lack of concentration while reading.
8. People often prefer reading texts that they are interested in. If one is reading a topic which is not according to his preferences, he may find himself losing interest gradually.
9. Previewing refers to take a quick glance at a text before actually reading it. It enables readers to understand the organizational structure of a text.
10. Contextualizing refers to the process of placing the text in its appropriate historical, biographical and cultural background.
11. Asking questions while reading a text helps one remember and understand what they have read up to that moment.
12. Summarizing a text is a great way to ascertain if one has grasped the intended meaning of the text. While outlining deals with the general overview of the text, summarizing is the process of writing down what one has understood about the central idea of the text in their own words thereby forming a new text in itself.
13. Evaluating involves the process of testing the logic of a text, its credibility and emotional impact.
14. The basic unit of a sentence is a word. Therefore, it is necessary to first understand the meaning of words in order to understand the meaning of sentences and ultimately the subtle meanings within the text.
15. Using context clues is a great way to understand what you are reading even if you don’t know all the vocabulary being used. Context clues can be found in the words and sentences surrounding the word that you aren’t familiar with.
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2. ‘Effective Business Communication’, Krizan and merrier (Cengage learning)
3. ‘Communication Skill, Sanjay Kumar and pushlata, OUP2011
4. “Practical English Usage Michael Swan OUP, 1995.
5. “Exercises in spoken English Parts I-III CIEFL, Hyderabad, Oxford University Press
6. On writing well, William Zinsser, Harper Resource Book 2001.
7. Remedial English Grammar, F.T. Wood, Macmillan2007.