Unit - 4
Persuasion and Negotiation Skills
The very nature of negotiation requires both have to move closer together to achieve a compromise. Persuasion or influencing on the other hand is the process of getting the other side to do what you want them to do. Often the art of persuasion is called negotiation.
“Attitude is a little thing that makes a big difference.”
Attitude is a mental and neutral state of readiness organized through experience exerting a dynamic influence upon the individual’s response to all situations and objects which the person is related. Attitudes develop on the ABC Model (Affect, Behavioural change and Cognition). It is certainly a state of mind that is well worth developing. In short, attitudes are tendencies to feel and behave in a particular way towards some objects, person or events.
Beliefs are usually generalisations. They are a judgement of ourselves and world around us. Beliefs can affect our thoughts and as a result our behaviour when they become strongly entrenched. They come from our experience and are an important part of our Identity.
A belief is an attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is true. In epistemology, philosophers use the term “belief” to refer to attitudes about the world which can be either true or false.
Values are a measure of the worth/ importance that we attach to something. They are basis of our behaviour and motivation defined by criteria. Since criteria may differ from person to person, the values may also differ.
Values are individual beliefs that motivate people to act one way or another. They serve as a guide for human behavior. Some values have intrinsic worth, such as love, truth, and freedom. Other values, such as ambition, responsibility, and courage, describe traits or behaviors that are instrumental as means to an end.
Behaviour or behaviour is the actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the physical environment
True persuasion and influence means that you are able to convince others of the merit of your ideas without needing to bully or disrespect others. Instead, you learn to understand what a particular person needs to hear, believe, or see in order to be persuaded. Then you are able to deliver the missing information or communication in the way that the other person is actually able to hear it. Persuasion is a powerful force that changes the attitudes and behaviours of others. It’s all about influence and manifests itself in many aspects of everyday life. People can persuade themselves, too. Persuasion’s most direct portrayals may show up in such places as courtrooms, political debates, and car showrooms, but many trades rely on persuasion, also UX design. We can split the art of persuading a user into many components; following them in order—the process—can lay a strong foundation to winning over users.
Persuasion is about increasing engagement between two parties; the art or act of persuasion involves four parts:
4.2.1 Analysis of Audience
In the preparation of a speech or a composition, audience analysis is the process of determining the values, interests, and attitudes of the intended or projected listeners or readers. The main content of the presentation mostly depends on the nature of the audience. Thus, audience analysis is a must for an effective presentation. Using the word, A-U-D-I-E-N-C-E, the general aspects related to the audience analysis are as follows:
A-Analysis- Who & how they are?
U-Understanding-The familiarity with the subject
D-Demographics- Age, gender, educational background.
I-Interest – Area of interest
E-Environment – Place where presentation can be seen and heard properly.
N-Need – Requirements from the presenter.
4.2.2 Classification of Audience
An Audience is the person for whom a writer writes, or composer composes. A writer uses a particular style of language, tone, and content according to what he knows about his audience. In simple words, audience refers to the spectators, listeners, and intended readers of a writing, performance, or speech.
Categories of the audience are the lay audience, managerial audience, and expert audience. For running a successful business, you need to promote and sell your products to a targeted and valuable audience.
There will always be a certain set of audiences that are sure to be present in at least one of your presentations (there also might be a mix bag of all of them). If you understand the character and the temperament of the audience it will become very easy for you to handle situations
Egoistic people believe we all put our own needs before those of others. ... To be egotistic is to have too inflated an opinion of yourself — in other words, it’s a form of self-delusion rather than a particular way of looking at the world. You can be egoistic without being egotistic.
Not intrusive in the display of one’s own personality or interpretation; not centred on or obtrusive in reference to oneself; compare “egotism”. Also (now chiefly): characterized by a lack of self-conceit; modest, self-effacing.
Create Useful and Relevant Content. The best way to reach your target audience is by providing them with useful and relevant content. Writing about topics that are of interest to your intended audience is a sure shot way of grabbing their attention.
Persuasion skills refer to the talent of changing the attitudes, beliefs, or behaviours of a person or group towards another person, group, event, object, or idea. It is usually done by conveying, in a message, some feelings, information, reasoning, or a combination.
List of persuasion skills
Steps to Persuasion/Influence
Five persuasive techniques
Negotiation is a method by which people settle differences. It is a process by which compromise or agreement is reached while avoiding argument and dispute. In any disagreement, individuals understandably aim to achieve the best possible outcome for their position or perhaps an organisation they represent.
Characteristics of Negotiation
The characteristics of negotiation skills are among others: preparation and planning skill, knowledge of the subject matter being negotiated, ability to think clearly and rapidly under pressure and uncertainty, ability to express thoughts verbally, listening skill, judgment and general intelligence, integrity, ability to persuade others, patience, decisiveness, considers lots of options, aware of the process and style of the other person, is flexible and thinks and talks about possible areas of agreement.
These skills include:
Qualities of good negotiator
Approaches to Negotiation
There are 3 key approaches to negotiations: hard, soft and principled negotiation. Many experts consider the third option — principled negotiation — to be best practice: The hard approach involves contending by using extremely competitive bargaining.