Module-3

Vector differential calculus

Vector function-

Suppose be a function of a scalar variable t, then-

Here vector varies corresponding to the variation of a scalar variable t that its length and direction be known as value of t is given.

Any vector can be expressed as-

Here , , are the scalar functions of t.

Differentiation of a vector-

We can denote it as-

Similarly is the second order derivative of

Note- gives the velocity and gives acceleration.

Note-

1. Velocity =

2. Acceleration =

The derivative of the velocity vector V(t) is called acceleration A(t), and it is given as-

Rules for differentiation-

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Example-1: A particle moves along the curve , here ‘t’ is the time. Find its velocity and acceleration at t = 2.

Sol. Here we have-

Then, velocity

Velocity at t = 2,

=

Acceleration =

Acceleration at t = 2,

Example-2: If and then find-

1.

2.

Sol 1. We know that-

2.

Example-3: A particle is moving along the curve x = 4 cos t, y = 4 sin t, z = 6t. then find the velocity and acceleration at time t = 0 and t = π/2.

And find the magnitudes of the velocity and acceleration at time t.

Sol. suppose

Now,

At t = 0 | 4 |

At t = π/2 | -4 |

At t = 0 | |v|= |

At t = π/2 | |v|= |

Again acceleration-

Now-

At t = 0 | |

At t = π/2 | |

At t = 0 | |a|= |

At t = π/2 | |a|= |

Scalar point function-

If for each point P of a region R, there corresponds a scalar denoted by f(P), in that case f is called scalar point function of the region R.

Note-

Scalar field- this is a region in space such that for every point P in this region, the scalar function ‘f’ associates a scalar f(P).

Vector point function-

If for each point P of a region R, then there corresponds a vector then is called a vector point function for the region R.

Vector field-

Vector filed is a reason in space such that with every point P in the region, the vector function associates a vector (P).

Note-

Del operator-

The del operated is defined as-

Example: show that where

Sol. here it is given-

=

Therefore-

Note-

Hence proved

Key takeaways-

Here , , are the scalar functions of t.

1. Velocity =

2. Acceleration =

3. Scalar field- this is a region in space such that for every point P in this region, the scalar function ‘f’ associates a scalar f(P).

4. Vector field-

Vector filed is a reason in space such that with every point P in the region, the vector function associates a vector (P).

Tangential and normal accelerations-

It is very important to understand that the magnitude of acceleration is not always the rate of change of |V|.

Suppose be the vector-valued function which denotes the position of any object as a function of time.

Then

Then the tangential and normal component of acceleration are given as below-

Example: A object move in the path where t is the time in seconds and distance is measured in feets.

Then find and as functions of t.

Sol.

We know that-

And

Now we will use-

And now-

Key takeaways-

The vector differential operator is written as-

Gradient

Suppose f(x, y, z) be the scalar function and it is continuously differentiable then the vector-

Is called gradient of f and we can write is as grad f.

So that-

Here is a vector which has three components

Properties of gradient-

Property-1:

Proof:

First we will take left hand side

L.H.S =

=

=

=

Now taking R.H.S,

R.H.S. =

=

=

Here- L.H.S. = R.H.S.

Hence proved.

Property-2: Gradient of a constant (

Proof:

Suppose

Then

We know that the gradient-

= 0

Property-3: Gradient of the sum and difference of two functions-

If f and g are two scalar point functions, then

Proof:

L.H.S

Hence proved

Property-4: Gradient of the product of two functions

If f and g are two scalar point functions, then

Proof:

So that-

Hence proved.

Property-5: Gradient of the quotient of two functions-

If f and g are two scalar point functions, then-

Proof:

So that-

Example-1: If , then show that

1.

2.

Sol.

Suppose and

Now taking L.H.S,

Which is

Hence proved.

2.

So that

Example: If then find grad f at the point (1,-2,-1).

Sol.

Now grad f at (1 , -2, -1) will be-

Example: If then prove that grad u , grad v and grad w are coplanar.

Sol.

Here-

Now-

Apply

Which becomes zero.

So that we can say that grad u, grad v and grad w are coplanar vectors.

Divergence (Definition)-

Suppose is a given continuous differentiable vector function then the divergence of this function can be defined as-

Curl (Definition)-

Curl of a vector function can be defined as-

Note- Irrotational vector-

If then the vector is said to be irrotational.

Vector identities:

Identity-1: grad uv = u grad v + v grad u

Proof:

So that

graduv = u grad v + v grad u

Identity-2:

Proof:

Interchanging , we get-

We get by using above equations-

Identity-3

Proof:

So that-

Identity-4

Proof:

So that,

Identity-5 curl (u

Proof:

So that

curl (u

Identity-6:

Proof:

So that-

Identity-7:

Proof:

So that-

Example-1: Show that-

1.

2.

Sol. We know that-

2. We know that-

= 0

Example-2: If then find the divergence and curl of .

Sol. we know that-

Now-

Example-3: Prove that

Note- here is a constant vector and

Sol. here and

So that

Now-

So that-

Key takeaways-

If f and g are two scalar point functions, then

5. If f and g are two scalar point functions, then

6. If f and g are two scalar point functions, then-

7.

8.

9. If then the vector is said to be irrotational.

10. grad uv = u grad v + v grad u

11.

12. curl (u

References