Communicative English 1
Mind Maps were first created and popularized by author and consultant, Tony Buzan. They use a two-dimensional structure, rather than the list format conventionally employed to take notes. This makes information easier to recollect, as it's held in a format that our minds find easy to recall and quick to review.
Mind Mapping may be a useful technique that supports learning, improves information recording, shows how different facts and concepts are related, and enhances creative problem solving.
How to Draw a Basic Mind Map
Below are the five basic steps involved in drawing a mind map:
Step 1. Write the title of the topic or project that you're exploring at the center of a page and draw a circle encompassing it, as shown in figure 1, below.
(The example below consists of a Mind Map of the actions needed to deliver a successful presentation.)
Step 2. Draw lines out from this circle as you think of subheadings of the subject or important facts or tasks that relate to your subject. Label these lines with your subheadings. (See figure 2, below.)
Step 3. Dive deeper into the topic to uncover consecutive level of data (related sub-topics, tasks or facts, for example). Then, link these to the relevant subheadings. (See figure 3, below.)
Step 4. Repeat the method for the succeeding level of facts, tasks and concepts. Draw lines out from the suitable headings and label them, as shown in figure 4, below.
Step 5. As you come across new information or think of additional tasks, you may add them to your Mind Map by extending previous ideas.
A complete Mind Map should contain the main topic lines reaching out in all directions from the center, with sub-topics stemming off these like branches and twigs from the trunk of a tree.
Scope and Uses of Mind Mapping
The scope of mind mapping can be summed up in the following points:
1. Brainstorming Sessions
A mind map could be a useful instrument for brainstorming new ideas. Ideas and thoughts can flow freely in the unstructured format of a mind map. Since concepts are placed in groupings, it also allows ideas to leap around among topics, instead of forcing them down an inventory.
2. Managing Meetings
A mind map makes a perfect meeting agenda format. Topics are arranged around the meeting's primary purpose, with details branching out from there. Displaying the mind map on a screen (or sharing it in a web meeting) allows participants to debate points, add action items, set deadlines, and make decisions. All of those may be inked on the mind map, which can then be shared electronically after the meeting ends.
3. Decision Making
When weighing the varied factors to be considered in making a significant decision, a mind map may be a helpful tool. Listing various alternatives, pros and cons of each, and other factors can generate creativity and result in an informed decision.
4. Organizing Information
Many busy people find that employing a mind map could be a good way to organize information and activities.
5. Strategic Thinking
Mind maps are a perfect way to plan business strategy. From basic SWOT analysis to decision-making and developing specific tactics, mind maps are often utilized in many ways during the strategic planning process.
6. Event Planning
When acting on an event, which can involve several different vendors, guests, and an array of tasks to coordinate, a mind map works perfectly.
7. Project Management
Planning a project with a mind map allows tasks to be organized starting with large categories and broken into smaller pieces of information. This rearrangement of tasks makes it much easier for the purpose of assigning, budgeting, and estimating timing.
Mind maps work extremely well in presentation settings. Using mind map diagrams, instead of bullet-point lists, could be a more interesting way to present information.
9. Evaluating Situations
Sometimes problems arise and require assessment. A mind map may be a good tool for this purpose. It allows you to explore various aspects of the issue, and group them into related areas. Thinking and recording such a situation visually in this manner may also stimulate finding solutions.
10. Taking Notes
In meetings, classrooms, online programs, and for general everyday use, mind maps are a quick, effective means of take notes.
Writing is one of the most crucial language skills that plays a vital role in all forms of communication. It may be used to communicate with other people in a social or formal setting and also to express our opinion in the written form.
There are some factors that influence one's ability to write; they include vocabulary, interest in a given topic, the understanding of pictorial representations in writing such as picture, map, graphic, etc and the various techniques of different kinds of writing. Among these factors, technique is an important factor that should be given special attention as by employing good technique, one can improve their ability to organize their ideas into meaningful works.
Information Transfer may be defined as an activity thatreproduces either from a full linguistic form into diagrammatic or semi diagrammatic form, or vice versa. In the process of transferring information, the content of the data remains the same, but the form of data changes, for instance, from non-linguistic form to linguistic form.
The word transfer means change in position or a change made from one position to another. Therefore, information transfer is an activity reproduction from one form into another form. Information Transfer technique is the transformation of instances of discourses from one type into another but these instances of discourse can also be derived from a non-verbal mode of communicating.
The Importance of Writing in Transferring Information
Writing is an important tool of communication to transfer messages or thoughts that are produced in written form in a sequence of sentence written in an exceedingly particular order and linked together in certain ways. Through writing, people can transfer the assorted components of the subject matter, their ideas, thoughts, and feelings to each other.
Writing is an essential tool for transferring information; the main reasons for the case are listed below:
a. Writing is a tool for discovery. We stimulate our thought process by the act of writing and formulate ideas into information and images we may have projected in our unconscious.
b. Writing generates new ideas by helping to form a connection and seeing the relationship with other aspects of an idea.
c. Writing helps us to arrange our ideas and clarify concept by writing down ideas into coherent form.
d. Writing helps us to absorb and process information. When we compose the subject, we learn it better. Therefore, when information is transferred through writing, it is easily stored and recollected by the receiver
e. Writing on an issue makes us be active learners instead of passive hoarders of information.
Forms of Written Communication for Transferring Information
This sort of correspondence includes any sort of trade of data in the composed structure. For instance, messages, emails, letters, reports, SMS, posts via web-based networking media, records, handbooks, banners, flyers, and so on.
Below are some common written communication forms:
There are many types of essays and papers you can write as a student. The content and length of the essay varies depending on your level, subject of study, and the requirements of a particular course.
However, many subject bodies share the same goal. They aim to convince students of a position or perspective through informed, evidence-based, analytical and interpretive debates.
In addition, every story has an introduction, body and ending that always do the same or few things.
Essay Writing Process:
The essay writing process consists of three stages: preparation, writing and revision. These categories apply to each article or paper. However, the time and energy spent in each category depends on the sort of essay, for instance a private statement, a press release of intent, a high school essay or a grad school essay.
- Understand the assignment
- Understand your audience
- Select a topic
- Do some initial research
- Name the thesis statement
- Create an outline
- Write an introduction
- Organize your arguments and give evidence
- Write the conclusion
- Analyse the organization
- Review the content of each paragraph
Writing letters is an art and a strategy. The latter can be followed by following formal meetings; the former must be nurtured with the care and deepest interest of man. The letters are generally divided into the following four categories: friendly or informal letters, business letters; invitations and responses, as well as the use of functions.
Letters can be formal or informal. They include:
Job application letter
Sales & credit letters
Letters of quotation
Claim and adjustment letters
Letters to authorities
Features of a Good Letter
- Knowing What to Say:
Nothing is more harmful to good communication than muddle-headedness resulting in not being able to make one's point. Before writing a letter one should be sure of what one wants to say and accordingly one should be in command of all the necessary facts and information arranged logically and systematically.
Knowing what one wants to say is not enough unless one says it in as clear a Language as possible. Here comes the importance of the right word and the right expression put in a sentence constructed neatly and with precision. It should, however, be remembered that right words and write expressions become relevant only when they occur in the right place. Thus emotional and even flowery language may be apposite to a personal Letter but it will be completely out of place in a business letter.
A few generations ago, when man enjoyed unlimited space and time, prolixity in language would not have been unwelcome, at Least in certain kinds of correspondence. In the modern age, however, addition of even one extra word cost time and energy most people will like to avoid. It is all the more the business correspondence. It means that all redundancy, be it a quotation illustration, an elaboration, in short, padding of any kind, must be avoided at all costs.
Avoidance of redundant helps achieve accuracy of statement. For much unwanted language in letters is the direct result of inaccurate and inconsistent thoughts and statements. A little care, particularly habitual revision of what one has written, will go a long way towards making writing accurate.
As remarked earlier, a letter reveals its writer's personality and character. Since there is always a 'you' in every letter, it is necessary that this 'you' or the addressee be shown all the courtesy and respect that language can express. Even when a complaint is lodged or a statement or application rejected, care should be taken that it is couched in polite and civilized language. It is worth remembering that while courtesy costs nothing, there is hardly anything more abrasive than impolite language.
- Good Looks:
Finally, a letter must be a visual attraction to the reader. It can displease either through wrong spelling and punctuation or bad writing and typing. These are not matters merely of form as even a well-thought out-letter, rich in ideas and having all the qualities of clarity, brevity, accuracy and courtesy may not only fail to make proper impact on the reader, but may even defeat its purpose by causing him unnecessary annoyance.
Parts of a Letter
It is convenient to divide all letters into 10 parts:
- Sender's address
- Direction (the address of the person(s) to whom you are writing)
- Reference (not always necessary in intimate, personal letters)
- Postscript (to be as a rule avoided, unless absolutely necessary)
- The envelope.
As these are mostly (except for the body of the letter) matters of form, we will illustrate each one of them. Often there are alternative forms, but you must choose one of them and use it consistently.
The success of a business or industrial organization lies in doing its job for this purpose, gathering information and passing it on to those who need it is important. In the broader collection and transfer of information is happening all the time in every area of formal life. So scientists, working brokers, testers, journalists, and various professionals, government and private organizations are asked to write and report to their management on important topics at the institution or the person involved.
Reports can be as short as a few sentences and as long as a few large pages. Although reports can be verbal and informal, here we are concerned with written and formal reports.
Reports can be of various types such as:
While writing the following principles can be kept in mind:
- Consider your Audience:
When organizing and preparing your reports you need to know who your audience is and whether or not your content meets their interests and needs.
- Enable Your Report:
Legitimacy has to do with how easy or readable it is. As most reports in normal cases type, all meetings with good typing should be followed. If there are handwritten reports, special attention should be given to writing clearly and clearly. Any departure from the above requirement will prove displeasing to your audience.
- Make your Report readable:
Clarity, durability and systematic presentation of readable content. The concept is summarized better than the following:
The author does a lot by giving his reader a lot of information and taking away from him a little time.
In this regard the following five goals are met:
a) Use short sentences.
b) You prefer convenience to the building.
c) Choose a common name.
d) Use the economy and avoid unnecessary words.
e) Act actions as far as possible
- Avoid unnecessary Names and Texts:
Just like unwanted fat in the body, padding, prolixity and repetition violates the respect of good writing, not to mention the respect they wrote for you. So 'agree' and 'prefer' will be more acceptable than pompous 'agree with' and 'prefer'. As such, why use 'at that point in time' and at a time when we have the best and most economical holdings at that time 'and' when '. Viewed from the point of view of the report, or requested for the report, a good report will contain four important details, an analysis of the information, conclusions and recommendations. It should always be remembered that effective reporting requires special attention to the needs and expectations of the reader. It means that the author of the report has to 'snap a picture', he must think and understand himself.
Wh-questions begin with what, when, where, who, whom, which, whose, why and how. We use them to ask for information. The answer cannot be yes or no:
When do you finish college?
Who is your favourite actor?
George Clooney for sure!
Asking for information about something
What is your name?
Asking for repetition or confirmation
What? I can't hear you.
Asking for a reason, asking why
What did you do that for?
Asking about time
When did he leave?
Asking in or at what place or position
Where do they live?
Asking about choice
Which colour do you want?
Asking what or which person or people (subject)
Who opened the door?
Asking what or which person or people (object)
Whom did you see?
Asking about ownership
Whose are these keys?
Asking for reason, asking what...for
Why do you say that?
Making a suggestion
Why don't I help you?
Asking about manner
How does this work?
Asking about condition or quality
How was your exam?
How + adj/adv
Asking about extent or degree
See examples below
How far is Pattaya from Bangkok?
Length (time or space)
How long will it take?
How many cars are there?
How much money do you have?
How old are you?
How come (informal)
Asking for reason, asking why
How come I can't see her?
Tag questions or question tags are questions formed by attaching question tags onto the end of a declarative sentence. These tags are commonly created using an auxiliary verb inverted with subject. These question tags change the declarative sentences to interrogative sentences.
- You are from USA, aren’t you?
- She is watching a film in the T.V.at home, isn’t she?
- You will go to your home town tomorrow, won’t you?
- She was a kind woman, wasn’t she?
- He is not attending the meeting, is he?
Sometimes a declarative sentence can be used as interrogative sentence by putting a question mark at the end of the sentence. When you ask questions like this orally, the last syllable of the sentence should be given proper intonation so as to make the listener understand that a question is being asked to him.
Question tags are words or phrases which convert regular imperative or declarative sentences into questions. In other words, question tags are phrases used at the end of sentences to turn them into questions. They may be used to confirm information that has already been conveyed through a sentence or to ask follow up questions at the end of a sentence.
For example, consider a statement “Your name is Jacob.” now if the words “isn't it?” are added at the end of the statement the statement turns into a question where the Identity of Jacob is being confirmed. And therefore, the statement becomes a question, “Your name is Jacob, isn't it?” Question tags replace a period at end of a sentence with a comma and end the same sentence with a question mark.
Below are some examples question tags
- You crashed my car yesterday, didn't you?
- Jake is Brave kid, isn’t he?
- I don't need to finish this project today, do I?
There are a few rules for determining question tags for different kinds of sentences; some of them are listed below:
- The Sentence and the question tag must always be in the same tense.
- If the sentence is negative the question tag must be negative and vice-versa.
- Question tags must never contain proper noun, they should always contain the pronoun.
- Sentences with negative meaning will have a positive question tag.
- The question tag ‘won’t you’ is used with imperative sentences.
- Question tags are always made in accordance with the main parts of the sentence.
- Each, everyone, everybody, no one, nobody, none are singular and hence but their question tag will take forms of plural verbs and plural nouns.
Question Tags for Statements (Assertive Sentences):
Assertive sentences, also known as Statements, are sentences which declare or assert a statement, feeling, incident, event, or opinion. Assertive sentences can either be affirmative or negative. They are also known as declarative sentences.
Question tags for assertive sentences generally do not require a direct answer. If the sentence is negative, the question tag will be positive and vice versa.
Some examples of question tags for assertive sentences are listed below:
- Shaq is a great basketball player, isn’t he?
- They carry your language to your room, don’t they?
- He fought against all the odds of life and became successful, Didn’t he?
- Charlie didn’t buy that book now, did she?
- Baseball is a great game, isn’t it?
Exceptions in Question Tags:
- The negative tag “am I not” is not used in any case, instead the tag “Aren’t I” is employed in its place. For example, in a sentence such as ‘I’m a fool.’ The tag ‘am I not?’ is not used, instead a very ungrammatical tag “aren’t I? Is used. Therefore the sentence will become “I’m a fool, aren’t I?” Instead of “I’m a fool, am I not?”
2. After a sentence with let’s only the tag “shall we?” can be used.
Ex. - Let’s take a stroll, shall we?
- Let's study tomorrow morning, shall we?
3. After an imperative we use "will you?" (Always affirmative). We can consider "will you?" as an equivalent to "please" (more or less)
Ex.- Open the door, will you?
- Don't smoke in this room, will you?
4. In the impersonal construction to show existence (there is/are/will be, etc.) THERE acts as the subject of the question tag too.
- There are two cats in the roof, aren't there?
- There wasn't a lion in the park, was there?
One Word Substitutes
Substitutions are useful to simplify sentences. Some phrases can easily be replaced by a single word containing the same meaning, thereby reducing the size of the structure of the sentence and simplifying it. They form an essential part of the vocabulary.
Some examples of one-word substitutes are listed below:
- To fall apart over time - Disintegrate
2. A copy of something that is identical - Facsimile
3. A smart and educated individual - Intellectual
4. Someone who is driven by passion to do crazy things - Zealot
5. Things to be done throughout the day - Schedule
6. To leave somewhere that is treacherous - Escape
7. A person who pushes an idea or belief system they do not believe – Hypocrite
8. Someone who sees everything negatively – Cynic
9. Something that is not understandable – Incomprehensible
10. A movie or play held during the daytime – Matinee
11. Time-frame between kids hitting puberty and being an adult – Adolescence
12. A person that is unknown – Anonymous
13. Someone that you work with – Colleague
List of One Word Substitutions – 1
Words for various fields of study:
Mapping of earth and its formation - Geography
Art related to ornate, good handwriting - Calligraphy
Scientific study of bodily diseases - Pathology
Study of birds - Ornithology
Study of celestial bodies - Astronomy
Study of collection of coins, tokens, paper money etc. - Numismatics
Study of earth and rocks - Geology
Study of election trends - Psephology
Study of flying aero planes - Aviation
Study of handwriting - Graphology
Study of hereditary, genes and variation in living organisms - Genetics
Study of human development - Anthropology
Study of languages - Philology
Study of living things - Biology
Study of religion - Theology
Study of science of insects - Entomology
Study of sound and sound waves - Acoustics
Study of the law of the flow of water and other liquids - Hydraulics
Study of the relation between the organism and their environment - Ecology
Study of various aspects of aging - Gerontology
The science of time order - Chronology
Study of religion - Theology
The science of human development - Anthropology
List of One Word Substitutions – 2
Words used for professional individuals and words used for habits:
One with unlimited power - Autocrat
One who walks on ropes - Funambulist
An expert in writing by hand - Chirographer
The doctor who attends to child delivery - Obstetrician
The doctor who attends to corns in the feet and hands - Chiropodist
The doctor who deals with the female reproductive system - Gynaecologist
The doctor who specializes in root canal and nerve treatment - Endodontist
The doctor who straightens teeth - Orthodontist
The doctor who treats bone problems - Orthopedician
The doctor who treats eye diseases - Ophthalmologist
The doctor who treats gums - Peridontist
The doctor who treats heart problems - Cardiologist
The doctor who treats skin diseases - Dermatologist
One who is all powerful - Omnipotent
One who is all knowing - Omniscient
One who is present all over - Omnipresent
One who can throw his voice - Ventriloquist
One who talks while sleeping - Somniloquist
One who walks in sleep - Somnambulist
One who walks at night - Noctambulist
One who turns his thoughts inwards - Introvert
One who turns his thoughts outwards - Extrovert
One who is both inwards and outwards at times - Ambivert
One who demands strict conformity to rules - Martinet
One who believes in ruthless self-aggrandizement - Egoist
One who doesn't consume alcohol - Teetotaler
One who exhibits courage or fearlessness - Intrepid
One who easily believes others - Credulous
One who knows a lot about good food and wine - Connoisseur
One who is beyond reform - Incorrigible
Well known for bad qualities - Notorious
A shrewish loud-mouthed female - Virago
One who is extravagantly romantic, chivalrous and impractical - Quixotic
List of One Word Substitutions – 3
Words related to certain actions, time and direction:
A backward look or a view into the past - Retrospect
Examine one's motives or look inwards - Introspect
To examine carefully - Inspect
Careful, cautious watch on surroundings - Circumspect
To walk aimlessly - Amble
When two things befall together - Coincident
A thing occurring again and again for a long time - Chronic
Someone or something out of time - Anachronism
To send out of one's native country - Expatriate
A highly accurate timepiece - Chronometer
Make to happen at the same time - Synchronize
Capable of moving in all directions - Omnidirectional
Word Choice for One Word Substitutes
A word is that the simplest part of any language. While communicating or delivering any ideas or thoughts, one must use a correct word. Word choice may be a person’s choice or selection of words. There are many factors which determine or compel an individual for a word choice. A word choice is a crucial a part of any communication.
A person, generally, chooses words to which he feels comfortable, confident, and straightforward enough for a general audience to know.
Importance of Word Choice
A person must develop the habit of using correct words. While speaking or writing, one must use the foremost appropriate word. One must learn the importance of correct word choice. Some of them are:
- If an individual is using an incorrect word, the message delivered loses it's meaning.
- Incorrect word choice may result in the misunderstanding among the audience.
- It may sometimes make a situation awkward and unclear.
- Many times, an incorrect word makes no sense.
- Correct word choice increases the impact on one’s mind.
- It reveals the attitude and personality of a person.
Methods for proper selection of words in writing and speaking
Selecting the proper words is an important a part of communicating, whether you’re writing a marriage speech or a technical report. You would like to settle on words that are appropriate for your material, that pitch your message at the proper level for your audience, and words that the majority clearly convey what you're trying to mention.
1. Choose everyday words
It is true that English features a vast and varied vocabulary. However, we mostly communicate using only a fraction of these words. A mere 3,000 are enough to form up 75 percent of all communication. They're all standard, everyday words like tall, eat, forget, and good. Those are the words that folks are most wont to . So, if you employ them instead of more flowery words, your writing are going to be easier for people to read and process.
2. Avoid clichés and buzzwords
Clichés are phrases and words which are used so often then vaguely that they lose their original impact. For instance, ‘at the top of the day’, ‘mass exodus’, ‘in any way, shape, or form’.
Buzzwords are words or phrases, often items of jargon, that are fashionable in certain contexts, and as a result tend to be overused and sound meaningless. For instance, what does ‘a holistic approach’ really mean?
Clichés and buzzwords can irritate readers and either distract them from your message or make them question its validity.
3. Choose appropriate formal, neutral, and informal words
English is extremely rich in synonyms. But fairly often synonyms don't mean precisely the same thing. They're utilized in distinct sorts of writing; some are more formal; some are slangy.
For example, dozens of words express the thought ‘to steal’, but they're all different. Just to look at three of them: purloin is certainly formal, while steal is ‘neutral’, that's to mention it's neither formal nor informal. But nick is certainly informal: you'd be surprised to seek out it during a newspaper report of a crime!
In straightforward informative writing, it's helpful to use only neutral words.
4. There are many types of English
English may be a world language with several national varieties, like Canadian English and Australian English. The 2 varieties which are most frequently contrasted are American and British. Aside from the well-known differences in spelling between them, as an example colour / colour, centre / centre, there also are differences within the use of words, a number of which aren't obvious.
To make sure that a specific meaning applies outside your own sort of English, it's advisable to see during a dictionary. As an example, in banking a British accounting may be a bank account in American English. Also, confirm your spellchecker is about to your sort of English.
5. Use inclusive vocabulary
It is important to respect groups in society like people with disabilities, older people, ethnic minorities, then forth. a method of doing this is often to settle on appropriate, non-stereotyping words. Especially, the words you employ should be gender-inclusive and not suggest a masculine bias. There are several ways of doing this. For instance, when pertaining to professions it's nowadays standard to avoid words that refer only to at least one sex, like actress (use actor) or policeman (use police officer).
6. Enrich your vocabulary
By widening your vocabulary you'll have more words to settle on from, which suggests you're more likely to understand a word that the majority precisely conveys your message. Reading is a superb thanks to learn new words. However, before you employ them, make certain to see the meanings of any words that are new you during a dictionary!