Communicative English 1
Jumbled sentences or Para-Jumbles refer to a set of jumbled sentences in a paragraph which, when placed logically form a coherent and meaningful paragraph. We are required to rearrange the sentences in a very proper manner such that they link and form a coherent paragraph.
Sample Question: The sentences given in each question form a coherent paragraph if properly sequenced. Each sentence is labeled with a letter. Choose the most coherent logical order of sentences from among the given choices to construct a coherent paragraph.
A. On Monday the secretary of state is bound to hold a day of meetings with high-level political, military and business figures to further a "strategic dialogue" geared toward further expansion of US trade in India.
B. US secretary of state Hillary Clinton arrived in India on Sunday for strategic talks objectifying bolstering bilateral ties and securing firmer support for the war in Afghanistan.
C. Clinton arrived by plane in Delhi before noon, according to a reporter travelling along with her, prior to expected talks with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and President Pratibha Patel in the evening.
1.BAC 2.BCA 3.CBA 4. CAB
This is a fairly easy question and readers can easily identify the option 2, BCA, as the correct answer.
The key points for identifying and correcting the jumbled sentences in the above example are:
Statement B forms the proper starting sentence, providing us with the best introduction for what is to follow.
Statements C and A take forward the paragraph within the chronological order within which the events are scheduled, with first the reason for the evening being provided then for the next day.
Strategies for Understanding and Solving Jumbled Sentences
Try to locate the introductory sentence: While you skim through the labelled sentences, attempt to search for one that makes a fresh beginning. It mustn't be a sentence that's extending previous ideas.
Check for Conclusive Last Sentences: There are multiple options beginning with the introductory sentence. So you will need more than one clue. The last sentence in the paragraph is one that summarizes and has links to previous sentences.
Anticipate the order of the sentences: Knowing that going through each choice is cumbersome, you must clearly work towards generating some kind of order in your mind, before you look at the options. This tactic will help save the precious time.
See if there are any logical sequences among sentence pairs: fairly often a pair of sentences may be chronologically arranged because of clues in one of the sentences. Standard clues include relation to an individual or a thing. The first time such a reference is formed, a noun form is employed. The second reference could be a pronoun or a preposition. For example, look at these two sentences:
A. Its origins belong in Konark, where an enormous chariot of Lord Jagannath is created once a year to be taken out in a procession.
B. The juggernaut, though it seems very German in origin, is in reality quite Asian.
The "Its" in sentence A refers clearly to juggernaut. So, we are able to infer that sentence B precedes sentence A. Only using this information of the "its", we don't know if B comes immediately before A or whether one or two sentences separate A and B. But by looking closely, you may also see a standard word- "origin", which hunts at the very fact that the connection is of immediate precedence.
A proposal is a document which is used to introduce a new product to the receiver(s). It consists of the product execution plans of the organisation, how the product can benefit the readers and also contains the technical details of the product.
A proposal should be concise and should be able to explain the complex details of a product easily. It should also be able to attract potential customers by ensuring them that your organisation is the one they want to make deals with.
A proposal is curated for various purposes but the main objectives are to offer sales of product or services, or to offer the undertaking of a project which can be practical or theoretical in nature. It can also be an offer to solve a technical problem.
A proposal can be written for various purposes including:
- To provide sale offers on property, buildings, machinery etc.
- To provide offers for construction of buildings, highways etc.
- To survey areas for water resources
- For designing a number of training programmes
- To provide offers for office automations
- To undertake various theoretical and practical research
- To provide details of a newly launched product
There are some basic characteristics that all proposals are likely to contain, which are summarised below. These characteristics can be tailored depending upon the requirement of the receiver(s).
The fundamental characteristics of a proposal include:
1. A well-stated definition of the problem or requirement
It should first and foremost describe the problem or the need of your product in the market. It should also describe why the problem or need has occurred in the first place and what shall be the consequences if the problem remains unsolved.
2. A clearly stated proposal to solve the problem
The proposal should contain means and methods of solving the problem stated earlier. If you are offering a product or service it should clearly state how the product or service will meet the requirements of the recipient and guarantee satisfaction. It should also discuss how the solution will be implemented.
3. Awareness of alternative proposals
It should always contain a plan B. Meaning, if the first offer should get refused by the recipient there should be plans for other ways to convince them
4. An evaluation of the benefits of your proposal
A technical proposal will always try to impose the positive effects of your proposal, for example, cost benefits or sustainability. A detailed account of how your product or service will benefit the receiving organisation financially and how durable the project or undertaking will be is a basic feature that is included in all technical proposals.
5. Possible counter arguments to your proposal
The customer is to be made aware of all the possible arguments that one could make against your offering, then the counter-arguments against those should be included to emphasize the reliability of your product or service.
6. A careful analysis of your audience
A technical proposal is carefully crafted taking the requirements, convictions and prejudices of the readers into account.
And the information and details presented in the proposal are always in accordance with the audience’s knowledge base and background.
7. A reasonable, sensible tone and style
The use of irony and sarcasm are to be avoided as much as possible. Provide arguments and counter-arguments for your proposal but always keep in mind that your key points should be positive regarding your product or service.
The appeal to the recipient should be based on intellect and reason rather than emotion. (although appealing to the emotions subtly is likely to be necessary at times as part of the persuasive tone – see persuasive writing).
All proposals can be divided into four broad categories viz. Internal, external, solicited and unsolicited proposals:
1. Internal, external: An internal proposal is a proposal written to someone within the organisation itself (a business, a government agency, etc.). Internal proposals are mostly semi-formal and contain less information (such as qualifications) since the communication is internal and there is a sense of familiarity. An external proposal is written to an individual or organisation which is outside the scope of one's own organisation. Technical proposals are mostly external proposals.
These proposals me be solicited or unsolicited as discussed below.
2. Solicited, unsolicited: A proposal which is specifically requested by the reception is called a solicited proposal. Companies often send out requests for proposals (RFPs) through the mail or publish them in various news sources. A proposal which is provided on one's own volition and is not requested by the recipient is known as a solicited proposal. It is a basic requirement to convince the recipient regarding the existence of a problem or the need of a product before starting the main part of an unsolicited proposal. Technical proposals, more often than not, are unsolicited proposals.
Most proposals can be classified into 4 main types:
In research proposals a specific research topic is discussed at length. It proposes the strategies for implementation of a particular research along with its objectives. The results of the research are also discussed in the proposal if they are obtained.
Academically inclined proposals include solutions to academic problems such as classroom automation or surveys. These proposals are always concise, formal and well organised.
Business proposals are proposals which supplement offers towards improving the various business processes. It could be an introduction to any new software or products to save the cost and time of the business and provide sustainability. It is very detailed about the specifications of the product or services it offers.
These proposals are curated with government undertakings in mind. They are formal in tone and provide a detailed cost analysis and benefits of dealing with your organisation.
A proposal consists of 3 main sections and various sub-sections.
The 3 main sections include:
- Main Body
- Supplementary Parts
These 3 sections can be divided into a number of sub-sections which include:
Title Page: The title should be suitable and catchy so as to grab the attention of the receiver.
Table of Contents: The table of contents should include the structure of the proposal and should be well organised with various headings and subheadings.
Executive Summary: This section must include a summarized version of the contents of the main body. It should be short and should contain all the key points covered in the proposal.
Introduction: In this section the main problem or the need of a particular product or service should be stated and emphasized. The introduction should be short but convincing enough for the reader to read further. It should also state the main objectives of the proposal and how they are going to be achieved.
Technical Section: This section should include all the technical details regarding the product or service. The implementation process and statistical data are also a part of this section. If there are any charts, graphs or any other illustrative tools, they are to be included in this section.
Cost Estimate: This section includes the cost benefit analysis of the undertaking. It should include all the benefits you and your organisation is providing with respect to the offered goods and services. It should also include a sustainability guarantee and all the cost figures connected to the project.
Conclusion: This section should include a summary of the key points with an emphasis on benefits with making deals with your organisation. It shouldn’t be very long and should contain all the necessary information which is required to persuade the reader to accept your proposal.
Appendices: This section must include the information which is too extensive or tangential to warrant inclusion in the main body of the report, but necessary as procedural or analytical evidence.
References: References must include detailed information of all your citations and the sources of material quoted in your texts. It can also include bibliography for further reading.
A subject – verb concord refers to the agreement formed between the subject and verb in a sentence which makes the sentence meaningful and sound structurally correct.
Below are the rules of a Subject-Verb concord:
Being able to find the right title and action will help you correct the mistakes of the action agreement.
Basic Rule. A singular subject (he, Bill, car) takes a singular verb (goes, shiny), and the plural subject takes a plural verb.
For example: The list of items is /are on the table.
If you know that a list is a topic, then you will choose it for the Verb.
- Rule 1. The subject will come before the sentence you begin. This is an important rule for understanding subjects/lessons. The word of is the culprit in many, perhaps most, subject-verb mistakes.
Funny writers, speakers, readers and the audience can miss the most common mistake in the following sentence:
Incorrect: The bouquet of yellow roses lends color and aroma to the room.
Correct: A bouquet of flowers of yellow roses lends. . . (borrowing a bouquet of flowers, not roses lend)
- Rule 2. Two related topics linked by, or, either/ or, or neither / nor require one action.
My aunt or my uncle is arriving by train today.
Neither Juan nor Carmen is available.
Either Kiana or Casey is helping today with stage decorations.
- Rule 3. The verb in an or, either / or, or neither / nor sentence agrees with the noun or pronoun next to it.
Neither the plates nor the serving bowl goes on that shelf.
Neither the serving bowl nor the plates go on that shelf.
This rule can lead to traffic congestion. For example, if I'm one of two (or more) subjects, it could lead to this unusual sentence:
Awkward: Neither she, my friends, nor I am going to the festival.
If possible, it is better to rearrange such correct sentences in the language but be negative.
Better: Neither she, I, nor my friends attend the festival.
She, my friends, and I are not going to the festival.
- Rule 4. As a general rule, use a plural action for two or more subjects if they are linked by.
Example: A car and a bicycle are my mode of transportation.
But note the exceptions:
Breaking and entering is against the law.
The bed and breakfast was charming.
In those sentences, breaking and entering and the bed and breakfast are complicated nouns.
- Rule 5a. Sometimes a subject is separated from a verb by words such as once, and, and besides, not, etc. These words and phrases are not part of the title. Ignore them and use only one action when the subject is alone.
The politician, along with the newsmen, is expected shortly.
Excitement, as well as nervousness, is the cause of her shaking.
- Rule 5b. Parents are not part of the topic.
Example: Joe (and his trusty mutt) was always welcome.
If this seems difficult, try rewriting the sentence.
- Rule 6. In sentences that begin here or there, the actual subject follows the verb.
There are four hurdles to jump.
There is a high hurdle to jump.
Here are the keys.
The word existence, some consensus exists, leads to bad habits in illegal sentences such as There are a lot of people here today, because it's easier to say "there" than "there is." Take care never to use an article on a plural subject.
- Rule 7. Use the unit-by-unit action, time periods, currency, etc., when considered a unit.
Three miles is too far to walk.
Five years is the maximum sentence for that offense.
Ten dollars is a high price to pay.
Ten dollars (i.e., dollar bills) were scattered on the floor.
- Rule 8. In words that indicate parts - e.g., many, many, all, all - Regulation 1 given earlier in this section is reversed, and we are guided by the noun in the background. If the noun is one after the other, use one action. If plural, use the plural verb.
A lot of the pie has disappeared.
A lot of the pies have disappeared.
A third of the city is unemployed.
A third of the people are unemployed.
All of the pie is gone.
All of the pies are gone.
Some of the pie is missing.
Some of the pies are missing.
In recent years, the SAT test service has considered none of it very important. However, according to Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage: "Obviously no one has been united and plural since Old English and still is. The idea that it is compiled only is a myth of an unknown origin that probably originated in the 19th century. If it seems to you, use one verb; if there seems to be a plural, use a plural verb. Both are accepted without serious criticism. " When none is clearly intended to mean "not one," it is followed by a singular verb.
- Rule 9. With collective nouns such as group, jury, family, audience, population, the action may be singular or plural, depending on the author's intent.
All of my family has arrived OR have arrived.
Most of the jury is here OR are here.
A third of the population was not in favor OR were not in favor of the bill.
Anyone using a collective verb with a collective pronoun should be aware of the accuracy - and also disagree. It should not be done with care. The following is the kind of error sentence that a person sees and doesn't hear much these days:
The staff decides how they want to vote.
Careful speakers and writers can avoid sharing their singular and plural to work in one sentence.
Consistent: The staff are deciding how they want to vote.
Rewriting such sentences is recommended whenever possible. The preceding sentence will read better like:
The staff members are deciding how they want to vote.
- Rule 10. The word instead consisted of statements expressing desire or contradicting the truth:
For example: If Joe were here, you would be sorry.
Shouldn't Joe be followed by him, not, given that Joe is alone? But Joe is not here, so we say it wasn't. The sentence indicates the state of injection, which is used to express things that are logical, wishful, rational, or controversial. The general motive reflects a few lessons and what we often think of as pluralism.
I wish it were Friday.
He requested that she raise his hand.
In the first example, a wish statement is presented, not a fact; So, it's been something, which we often think of as a mathematical act, used with it. (Technically, one article in a reunion: it was Friday.)
Usually, he used to sound awful to us. However, in the second example, when an application is presented, the subjunctive mood is correct.
- Note: The punctuation condition is lost in spoken English but should be used in formal speech and writing.
Signposts and transition signals are linking words or phrases that connect ideas and concepts and add cohesion to writing. They signpost or illustrate to the reader the relationships between sentences and between paragraphs, making it easier for the reader to grasp your ideas. Transition signals are employed in sentences to fulfil a number of functions. Some of these functions include: to show the order or sequence of events; to point out that a brand-new idea or an example will follow; to indicate that a contrasting idea is going to be presented, or to signal a summary or a conclusion.
How are Signposts and transition signals useful?
Signposts and Transition signals will:
- Make it easy for the reader to follow the main themes and concepts.
- Create powerful links between sentences and paragraphs to enhance the flow of data across the whole text. The result is that the writing is smoother.
- Help to hold over a concept from one sentence to another, from one idea to a different one or from one paragraph to another.
How are transition signals used?
- Transition signals are usually placed at the beginning of sentences; however, they'll also appear in the middle or end of sentences.
- A transition signal, or the clause introduced by a transition signal, is typically separated from the rest of the sentence by commas.
- Transition signals are not needed in every sentence in a paragraph; however, good use of transition words will help to form the link between the ideas in your writing clear and logical.
Transition words and signposts perform a vital function in writing. They act as signals which allow the reader to understand the direction the writer is taking. They facilitate this by connecting or linking ideas or concepts within a paragraph and providing a bridge between passages. While reading, it is essential to remember to proofread the text in order to make sure transitions are used effectively.
Below are examples of commonly used transition signals and signposts and their functions:
To show addition:
First, second, etc.
To show temporality:
After a few hours
As soon as
In the future
To show location:
At the side
In the back
In back of
In the background,
In the distance
In the front
In the foreground
On top of
To the right
To show comparison:
At the same time
By and large
In the same way
In the same manner
In the same way
To show contrast:
Although this is
For all that
On the contrary
On the other hand
While this is true
To emphasize a point:
As a matter of
For this reason
To give examples:
As an illustration
To introduce as a result:
As a result
Due to this
To introduce conclusions:
As a result
On the whole
Finally, by and large
On the whole