This edition of the book, like the previous edition, is dedicated to late Professor MV Joshi, who was the architect and the author of this book. This edition brings you few updates and additions, like chapter 12 gives you a new write up on hydrocyclone, in Auxiliary Process Vessels; Chapter 14 gives a write up on Jet Mixer and Eductor, in Mixers; and Appendix J, gives a calculation of volume of a horizontal tank, with formulae, and so on. We are very much thankful to Dr VV Chavan, Managing Director, Mamko Design and Engineering Private Ltd Mumbai 400 063 for pictures of Jet Mixers and hydrocyclone. His suggestions on brief write up of these items are thankfully acknowledged. Suggestions by Professor (Dr) S P Deshmukh of ICT (UDCT) Mumbai 400 019 were very much valuable. We acknowledge with thanks the support of our friends and student community and now look forward to their comments and suggestions for the next edition.
Additional Info
  • Publisher: Laxmi Publications
  • Language: English
  • ISBN : 978-93-5138-019-1
  • Chapter 1

    Basic Considerations in Process Equipment Design Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Chemicals and hence chemical producing plants (Chemical Projects) have become very essential for giving us a quality of life leading to sustainable development. In the modern competitive chemical industry, new plants are continuously being set up, existing ones modified and modernized to meet the market demands for improvement in performance or to accommodate the latest technology. A chemical plant consists of many different types of equipment in order to manufacture the desired chemical products.
  • Chapter 2

    Materials o f Construction Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    A designer of machines or equipment must be well acquainted with a large number of available materials. In choosing such materials, the most important criteria are obviously the various properties of the materials. The final choice will, however, depend on the ease of fabrication and the overall cost. Certain properties of materials can be well defined, others can be stated in relative terms, while a few may be rather vague. The basic properties are composition, structure, specific weight, thermal conductivity, coefficient of expansion and resistance to corrosion. Properties such as strength, elastic limit, moduli of elasticity, endurance limit, resilience, toughness, ductility, brittleness and hardness are termed as mechanical properties. From the point of view of fabrication, machinability, weldability and malleability might be considered as relevant properties.
  • Chapter 3

    Design Considerations Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Several factors which influence the design of components, need consideration in order to understand the effect and the influence of each factor individually and also in the combination with other factors, so that the final design can be based on the proper application of these factors. In Chapter 1, general principles involved in designing of machine parts and equipment have been discussed and certain guidelines have been indicated. For a satisfactory design of any component, various factors which must be considered are:
  • Chapter 4

    Design o f Machine Elements Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    A variety of machine elements usually form a part of the equipment used in the chemical industry. Such elements are shafts, keys, couplings, bearings, bolts, etc. A detailed account of the types, capacity and design of these elements are available in standard textbooks on the subject. It is proposed to give here an outline of the design procedure adopted for each element. In the overall design of chemical equipment, discussed in subsequent chapters, the design procedure for machine elements suggested here may be referred to wherever such machine elements are provided.
  • Chapter 5

    Pressure Vessels Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Several types of equipment which are used in the chemical industry have an unfired pressure vessel as a basic component. Such units are storage vessels, kettles, distillation columns, heat exchangers, evaporators, autoclaves, etc. Each one of these is covered in detail in subsequent chapters. The general design procedure applicable to the main parts of the pressure vessel is considered in this chapter.
  • Chapter 6

    High Pressure Vessels Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    These vessels are generally used as reactors, separators or receivers and heat exchangers. Most of the batch reactors used for high pressure work are termed as autoclaves. They are vessels with an integral or welded bottom and a removable or welded top head and are generally provided with an inlet, heating and cooling systems and very often an agitator system. Separators for high pressure work are also vessels with an inlet and in some cases a centrifugal device for separating the gas from the liquid.
  • Chapter 7

    Storage Vessels Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Liquid and gaseous products must be stored during intervals between production, transportation, refining, blending and marketing. The object of storage at each of these stages is firstly to supply a sufficient balance of each stock to ensure continuity of operations, and secondly, to ensure that the product is conserved and maintained at an acceptable level of quality.
  • Chapter 8

    Reaction Vessels Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    As the name suggests, the reaction vessels are used not only to carry out unit processes (for example, hydrogenation, esterification, halogenations, alkylation and so on), but also used to conduct unit operations such as mixing, extraction, distillation, dissolution, crystallization and so on. The operating conditions might have high pressure, reduced pressure (vacuum) or near atmospheric pressure. The reaction vessel operating under high-pressure of say, more than 20 bar, is often refereed as an ‘autoclave’. However, this classification is subjective in nature.
  • Chapter 9

    Heat Exchangers Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    A device used for transfering or exchanging energy in the form of heat between two fluids is known as a heat exchanger. This heat exchange can be either by direct or indirect method. In the indirect method two fluids are separated by a surface, metallic or non-metallic – through which heat transfer takes place generally in the direction perpendicular to flow direction.
  • Chapter 10

    Evaporapors and Crystallisers Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Evaporators are used in the chemical industry for the concentration of liquids. The operation is performed normally by the use of low pressure, dry and saturated steam. For special purposes organic vapours or fuel gases may be adapted. In most cases, water, which is the solvent, is evaporated. With the vapourisation of a part of the water, the useful product is a concentrated solution. If the solution contains dissolved solids, the resulting strong liquor may become saturated, so that crystals are formed.
  • Chapter 11

    Distillation and Absorption TowersColumns Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Distillation (fractionation) and Absorption are the two most widely used mass transfer unit operations in the chemical industry. While distillation is performed at higher than ambient temperatures involving a wide range of pressures (nearly total vacuum to super atmospheric pressures), the absorption systems may involve cryogenic conditions and super atmospheric pressure. Regeneration/stripping operations are carried out at higher temperatures and near atmospheric (some times sub-atmospheric) pressures.
  • Chapter 12

    Auxiliary Process Vessels Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Auxiliary process vessels are essential for fulfilling the functioning of some of the major process equipments, for example, a wrongly selected vapour liquid separator in the evaporator (see Para 10.3) may result in loss of a valuable product or contamination of steam in case of multiple effect evaporator system. Steam contamination may require condensate treatment before it is sent to boiler as boiler feed water. Some of the auxiliary vessels, most often used are reflux drums, liquid-liquid separators and vapour-liquid separators.
  • Chapter 13

    Supports for Vessels Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Cylindrical and other types of vessels have to be supported by different methods. Vertical vessels are supported by brackets, columns, skirts or stool supports, while horizontal vessels are supported by saddles. The choice of the type of support depends upon the height and diameter of the vessel, available floor space, convenience of location, operating temperature and the material of construction
  • Chapter 14

    Mixers Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Mixing is a very important unit operation in any Chemical Process Industry. For instance, all operations involving blending, homogenization, emulsion preparation, extraction, dissolution, crystallization, liquid phase reactions, etc., need mixing in one form or the other. Broadly speaking, two types of commercial mixing devices are available, namely,
  • Chapter 15

    Filters Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The function of the filtration equipment is to separate the mixture called more or less completely from the liquid. Depending on the nature of the solid-liquid slurry, the driving force required for separation may be divided into four categories, namely, gravity, vacuum, pressure and centrifugal.
  • Chapter 16

    Dryer Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The function of the dryers is to remove water/solvent from wet solids or from slurries by evaporation. The process involves heat transfer and diffusion. Accordingly, the process of drying can be divided into two stages. During the first stage, in which the material surface is wet, the rate of evaporation is constant. This is known as constant rate period. In the next stage, the surface being dry, the water/solvent must force itself to the surface by diffusion, which is slower than evaporation. This, therefore, known as the falling rate period. The entire process, therefore, involves heat transfer as well as mass transfer. Heat transfer can be achieved either by direct contact between the heating medium and the material or by indirect contact in which the material and the medium are separated by a wall. Heat transfer and diffusion can be facilitated if the material is agitated or sprayed to facilitate drying. Although evaporation is the main operation in drying of the materials, in certain cases it is equally essential that the physical appearance and properties of the dried product be preserved. A critical choice of processing conditions and the method of heat transfer is necessary in such cases.
  • Chapter 17

    Process Hazards and Safety Measures in Equipment Design Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The previous chapters dealt with the selection of materials, analysis of stresses, determination of strength and the design procedure adopted in equipment design. If the design procedure is strictly adhered to, the selection of the material is appropriate, and the fabrication and final inspection are carefully carried out, it is expected that the equipment should not fail under service condition. However, failures in service conditions or environments are not entirely eliminated. Singly, or in combination, many specific causes can lead to these failures. Certain safety measure can help to prevent such failures.
  • Chapter 18

    Process Flow Diagrams Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    A pictorial representation of all unit operations and processes taking place in a chemical plant is shown with the help of following basic diagrams: Process Block Diagram (PBD) Process Flow Diagram (PFD) Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) and is also known as an Engineering Diagram. Like the main manufacturing unit all the above diagrams are drawn for all utilities also. In case of electrical power as utility a single line diagram (SLD) is drawn.

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