The study of microorganisms carries its importance from vedic times. Microorganisms are the source of various antibiotics, drugs, harmones, vitamins even vaccines. They have a wide variety of Industrial applications for the benefit of mankind. An attempt has been made to give information in easy language so that the students can easily grasp it.
Additional Info
  • Publisher: Laxmi Publications
  • Language: English
  • ISBN : 978-93-5274-078-9
  • Chapter 1


    This document contains the preface of the book.

  • Chapter 2


    This document contains the foreword of the book.

  • Chapter 3


    This document contains the contents of the book.

  • Chapter 4

    Chapter 1- Introduction to Microbiology Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms, either unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells)
    (Nitesh et al., 2011). Microbiology encompasses numerous sub-disciplines including virology, mycology, parasitology and bacteriology.

  • Chapter 5

    Chapter 2- Microscopy Micrometry Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view samples and objects that cannot be seen with the unaided eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye). There are three well-known branches of microscopy: optical, electron, and scanning probe microscopy.

  • Chapter 6

    Chapter 3- Instruments Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    A pH meter is an electronic device used for measuring the pH (acidity or alkalinity) of a liquid (though special probes are sometimes used to measure the pH of semi-solid substances). A typical pH meter (see Fig. 3.1) consists of a special measuring probe (a glass electrode) connected to an
    electronic meter that measures and displays the pH reading.

  • Chapter 7

    Chapter 4- Chromatography Electrophoresis Immunoelectrophoresis Usoelectric Focussing Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Chromatography is the collective term for a set of laboratory techniques for the separation of mixtures. The mixture is dissolved in a fluid called the mobile phase, which carries it through a structure holding another material called the stationary phase. The various constituents of the mixture travel at different speeds, causing them to separate. The separation is based on differential partitioning between the mobile and stationary phases. Subtle differences in a compound’s partition coefficient result in differential retention on the stationary phase and thus changing the separation.

  • Chapter 8

    Chapter 5- Sterilization Staining and Preperation of Media Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Sterilization (or sterilisation) is a term referring to any process that eliminates (removes) or kills all forms of microbial life, including transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, etc.) present on a surface, contained in a fluid, in medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media. Sterilization can be achieved by applying heat, chemicals, irradiation, high pressure, and filtration or combinations thereof.

  • Chapter 9

    Chapter 6- Subculture and Lyophilisation Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    In biology, a subculture is a new cell or microbiological culture made by transferring some or all cells from a previous culture to fresh growth medium. This action is called subculturing or passaging the cells. Subculture is used to prolong the life and/or expand the number of cells or microorganisms in the culture.

  • Chapter 10

    Chapter 7- The Bacteria Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Bacteria( singular: bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most habitats on the planet.

  • Chapter 11

    Chapter 8- A Bacteriology-1 Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Bacteriology is the study of bacteria. This subdivision of microbiology involves the identification, classification, and characterization of bacterial species. A person who studies bacteriology is a bacteriologist.

  • Chapter 12

    Chapter 9- Bacteriology Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococci (plural), or gonococcus (singular), is a species of Gram-negative coffee bean-shaped diplococci bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. N. gonorrhoea was first described by Albert Neisser in 1879.

  • Chapter 13

    Chapter 10- The Fungus Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses, is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds), as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from plants, animals, and bacteria.

  • Chapter 14

    Chapter 11- Mycology Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Mycology (from the Greek μ?κης, muk?s, meaning “fungus”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine (e.g., penicillin), food (e.g., beer, wine, cheese, edible mushrooms) and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as poisoning or infection.

  • Chapter 15

    Chapter 12- The Plant Virus Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants. Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that do not have the molecular machinery to replicate without a host. Plant viruses are pathogenic to higher plants. While this article does not intend to list all plant viruses, it discusses some important viruses as well as their uses in plant molecular biology.

  • Chapter 16

    Chapter 13- Virology-I Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Interferons (IFNs) are proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, parasites or tumor cells. They allow for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that eradicate pathogens or tumors.

  • Chapter 17

    Chapter 14- Virology-II Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Measles virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Morbillivirus within the family Paramyxoviridae. Humans are the natural hosts of the virus; no animal reservoirs are known to exist.

  • Chapter 18

    Chapter 15- Viroid Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Viroids are plant pathogens that consist of a short stretch (a few hundred nucleobases) of highly complementary, circular, single-stranded RNA. In comparison, the genome of the smallest known viruses capable of causing an infection by themselves are around 2 kilobases in size.

  • Chapter 19

    Chapter 16- The Prion Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    A prion in the Scrapie form (PrPSc) is an infectious agent composed of protein in a misfolded form. This is the central idea of the Prion Hypothesis, which remains debated. This would be in contrast to all other known infectious agents (virus/bacteria/fungus/parasite) which must contain nucleic acids (either DNA, RNA, or both).

  • Chapter 20

    Chapter 17- The Chlamydia Ricketsia Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Rickettsia is a genus of non-motile, Gram-negative, nonsporeforming, highly pleomorphic bacteria that can present as cocci (0.1 μm in diameter), rods (1–4 μm long) or thread-like (10 μm long). Being obligate intracellular parasites, the Rickettsia survival depends on entry, growth, and replication within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic host cells (typically endothelial cells).

  • Chapter 21

    Chapter 18- Cyanobacteria Myxobacteria Mycoplasma Cyanobacteria Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green bacteria, blue-green algae, and Cyanophyta, is a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. The name “cyanobacteria” comes from the color of the bacteria.

  • Chapter 22

    Chapter 19- Algae Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Algae ( singular alga, Latin for “seaweed”) are a very large and diverse group of simple, typically autotrophic organisms, ranging from unicellular to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelps that grow to 65 meters in length. Most are photosynthetic and “simple” because they lack the many distinct cell and organ types found in land plants.

  • Chapter 23

    Chapter 20- Microbial Genetics-1 Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Microbial genetics is a subject area within microbiology and genetic engineering. It studies the genetics of very small (micro) organisms. This involves the study of the genotype of microbial species and also the expression system in the form of phenotypes. It also involves the study of genetic processes taking place in these micro organisms i.e., recombination etc.

  • Chapter 24

    Chapter 21- Microbial Genetics-2 Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a ubiquitous family of large biological molecules that perform multiple vital roles in the coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. Together with DNA, RNA comprises the nucleic acids, which, along with proteins, constitute the three major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life.

  • Chapter 25

    Chapter 22- Microbial Metabolism Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Microbial metabolism is the means by which a microbe obtains the energy and nutrients (e.g., carbon) it needs to live and reproduce. Microbes use many different types of metabolic strategies and species can often be differentiated from each other based on metabolic characteristics. The specific metabolic properties of a microbe are the major factors in determining that microbe’s ecological niche, and often allow for that microbe to be useful in industrial processes or responsible for biogeochemical cycles.

  • Chapter 26

    Chapter 23- Microbial Fermentation Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Fermentation is the enzymatic decomposition and utilization of foodstuffs, particularly carbohydrates, by microbes. Fermentation takes place in the large bowel of all animals, but there are major differences in its contribution to the nutrition of different species. In carnivores like dogs and cats, and even in omnivores like humans, fermentation generates very few calories. In herbivores, however, fermentation is a way of life.

  • Chapter 27

    Chapter 24- Biological Pest Control Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Biological control is a method of controlling pests (including insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases) using other living organisms. It relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms, but typically also involves an active human management role. It can be an important component of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs. There are three basic types of biological pest control strategies: importation (sometimes called classical biological control), augmentation and conservation.

  • Chapter 28

    Chapter 25- Dental Plaque Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Dental plaque is a biofilm, usually a pale yellow, that develops naturally on the teeth. Like any biofilm, dental plaque is formed by colonizing bacteria trying to attach themselves to the tooth’s smooth surface. It has been speculated that plaque forms part of the defense systems of the host by helping to prevent colonization of microorganisms that may be pathogenic.

  • Chapter 29


    This document gives the index of the book.

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